How to Use a Bottle Sterilizer

Bottle sterilizers can provide an extra degree of sterilization for your baby's bottles beyond what you can get with soap and hot water. Weekly bottle sterilization is recommended for babies under the age of 1. Electric sterilizers are efficient, easy to use, and often perform other functions, like drying, deodorizing, and warming your bottles. Microwave sterilizers work very fast and do not require outlets or counter space. Cold water sterilizers are great if you are traveling or do not have access to electricity. Choose the type of sterilizer you want, and learn how to operate it correctly.

How to Use a Bottle Sterilizer 1

(PDF) Evaluation of Dimensional Changes of 3D Printed Models After Sterilization: A Pilot Study

Available via license: CC BY 4.0 Content may be subject to copyright. Evaluation of Dimensional Changes of 3D Printed Models After OMFS IMPATH research group, Department of Imaging & Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven & Oral and To assess the effect of two of the most commonly used sterilization techniques on 3D printed clinical objects. The two sterilization methods used in our hospital and investigated in this paper are: Steam heat and Gas plasma. Three objects were printed and tested in this study: a tooth replica, an orthognathic final splint, a surgical cutting guide for the purpose of mandible reconstruction. For each of the 3 objects, 4 copies were made: one original STL object, one copy of the object pre-sterilization, one copy of post-steam heat sterilization, and one copy of post-gas plasma sterilization. Each printed object was scanned using a high resolution CBCT protocol and the compared (morphologically and volumetrically). At the level of volumetric changes, no difference was found between pre and post-sterilization for both methods evaluated. As for the morphological changes, only differences were noticed with the orthognathic splint object indicating deformation of the printed splints after sterilization. Larger differences were observed with heat sterilization, making it less reliable. Sterilization of dental objects to be used in a clinical setting may lead to deformation of the printed model, especially for heat sterilization. Further investigations are needed to confirm these findings. Additive manufacturing, rapid prototyping or three-dimensional (3D) printing is a growing technology which is changing the manufacturing industry . The most common techniques are Stereolithography (SLA), Selective Laser (LOM). Recent developments in medical imaging along with the developments in Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) allowed the fast rise of 3D printing in medicine. Applications of 3D printing in the medical field vary from treatment planning, surgical guides, teaching models, educational tools to printing scaffolds for tissue engineering and direct printing of tissues and organs . The fields of * Address correspondence to this author at The OMFS IMPATH research group, Department of Imaging & Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, KU Evaluation of Dimensional Changes of 3D Printed Models The Open Dentistry Journal, 2018, Volume 12 dentistry and maxillofacial surgery are also benefiting from 3D printing used in orthognathic surgery, implantology, These various clinical applications made the sterilization of the printed prototypes mandatory for their use intraoperatively. Methods used for instrument sterilization in surgical care should be reliable, practical and safe for the instruments. The main two categories are sterilization with heat and sterilization with gas . The topic of sterilization of 3D printed objects for the purpose of use in the operation theatre is barely addressed , while sterilization of titanium in dental implants have been investigated . The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two of the most commonly used sterilization techniques on 3D The two sterilization methods used in our hospital and investigated in this paper were: Steam heat and Gas plasma. Steam heat also known as autoclave is a device used to sterilize equipment by subjecting them to high pressure saturated steam at 121C (or higher) for around 15-20 minutes depending on the size of the load and the contents. For this study, the temperature was set to 134C and the total duration of the cycle (including heating and cooling down) Sterilization with gas. Specific gases exert a lethal action on bacteria which destroys enzymes and other vital biomechanical structures. For sterilization, Ethylene Oxide (EtO) is the most commonly used but is highly flammable, needs special equipment and has a lengthy procedure to reduce tissue toxicity . On the other hand, gas plasma sterilization is recommended to materials sensitive to temperature, humidity and which do not comply for EtO sterilization can be sterilized using gas plasma (vaporized hydrogen peroxide, VHP). It is a relatively new option that can provide low heat sterility cycles with none of the off-gassing concerns present with EtO. For this study, the temperature was set to 55C and the total cycle duration was 50 minutes. Three objects were printed and tested in this study: An orthognathic final splint representing the procedure of orthognathic surgery as described by Shaheen A surgical cutting guide for the purpose of mandible reconstruction . Each object was selected to cover the different applications in oral and maxillofacial surgeries and was provided in Stereolithography (STL) format. Each object was printed twice in biocompatible material as it is the case in clinical practice using the PolyJet technology of Objet Connex 350 (Stratasys, Eden Prairie, MN USA) with layer thickness of 30m. PolyJet 3D printing works similarly to inkjet printing, but instead of jetting drops of ink onto paper, PolyJet 3D printers jet layers of curable liquid photopolymer onto a build tray which are instantly cured with ultra violet light. Fine layers accumulate on the build tray to create one or several 3D models or parts . Fig. ( ) shows the original objects Each copy was scanned with a Cone Beam Computer Tomography (CBCT) using a high resolution protocol intended for objects and not for patients with the following acquisition settings; system: Planmeca Promax 3D Max, Fig. (1). The original objects in STL format: Orthognathic splint, surgical guide and TAT. One copy of each object was sterilized using autoclave and the other copy of each object was sterilized using gas plasma. After sterilization, each object was scanned using the same CBCT protocol as pre-sterilization, forming 3 groups: TAT group, splint group and surgical guide group. Within each group, there are 4 copies: the original STL object, one pre-sterilization, one post-sterilization heat and one post-sterilization gas. Evaluation of Dimensional Changes of 3D Printed Models The Open Dentistry Journal, 2018, Volume 12 The DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) images of each scan were exported from the CBCT and imported into Mimics Medical 19.0 (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The same threshold value was used to standardize the segmentation procedure for all objects to construct 3D objects which were exported from the software as STL files. These files were then imported into the 3-matic 11.0 software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium) for further For each group, the pre-sterilization object was registered to the original object (STL used for printing) using surface based registration. Then each post-sterilization copy was registered to the registered pre-sterilization object. Fig. ( ) shows the example of TAT group. Fig. (3). The TAT group: original STL, pre-sterilization, post-sterilization heat, post-sterilization gas and all objects registered to the We report on the volume of each object, but for more accurate morphological assessment, part comparison analysis was used. The part comparison analysis is also known as color distance map where the distance is calculated at each point on the surface of an object and the corresponding point at the surface of another object. The mean, standard deviation and Root Mean Square (R,M,S) were reported between the following: Pre-sterilization and the original object: to assess the deviation of the printing and scanning procedures from the Post-sterilization heat and the pre-sterilization object: to assess the deviations resulting from the autoclave Post-sterilization gas and the pre-sterilization object: to assess the deviations resulting from the gas plasma Table shows the results of the volume per group and the percentage change ( indicates an increase and indicates a decrease in volume). For the accuracy test of the printing and the scanning procedures, the percentage change was between 0% to 1.8% increase in volume indicating a high accurate procedure. As for the accuracy of the heat sterilization, the percentage change in volume ranged from -0.6% to 1.5%. For the gas sterilization, the volume percent change ranged from 0.6% to 0.9% indicating that for both methods no significant change was reported. Table 1. Results of the volumetric assessment for the TAT, splint and the surgical guide groups. Table shows the results of the part comparison analysis. The differences reported were all below 0.1mm. The results of the splint group was not reported due to the failure of complete registration of both post-sterilized objects to the pre-sterilized one as shown in Fig. ( ). Therefore, the registration was repeated and based on the middle part of the splint instead of a global surface registration to allow the assessment of deformation at the side parts. Table 2. Results of the morphological assessment for the TAT and the surgical guide groups. Fig. (4). The outcome of the registration per group. Evaluation of Dimensional Changes of 3D Printed Models The Open Dentistry Journal, 2018, Volume 12 In order to assess the changes occurred post-sterilization for the splint object, another method was used as shown in Fig. ( ). A curve was drawn on the pre-sterilized splint and 7 landmarks (points) were indicated. The same landmarks were indicated on the corresponding positions once on the post-sterilization heat splint and another on the post- sterilization gas splint. The distances error were measured and presented in Table . Table 3. The distances between the 7 landmarks on post-sterilized heat and gas splints to the original curve respectively. Fig. (5). A curve drawn on the pre-sterilized splint and 7 landmarks (points) indicated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of sterilization methods used in our hospital set-up on 3D printed surgical objects. The two most commonly used sterilization techniques are steam heat (autoclave) and gas plasma which were investigated in this paper. Whether the sterilization has an effect on 3D printed object or not is a topic not really addressed. Surgical guides especially in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery are extensively used due to the presence of several CAD/CAM tools and low cost 3D printers. In this paper, we focused on the PolyJet technology with the Objet Connex 3D printer (the biocompatible material) since it has higher accuracy when compared to other technologies and has been evaluated for biocompatibility in accordance with the industrial standard. The results in this study showed that the percentage changes in volumes are negligible and were up to 1.5% increase in volume. As for the morphological assessment, the deformity of the objects after sterilization was also minor for the TAT and the surgical guide with a maximum mean error of 0.014mm. Although the volume changes for the splint objects after both the heat and gas sterilization was negligible, but the registration procedure failed due to the noticeable deformity in the objects after sterilization as shown in Fig. ( ). Such deformities made the splints unusable and inaccurate for the operation. Further investigations showed that the curvature of the splints was decreased compared to the pre-sterilization situation with larger differences at the borders (points 1 and 7) with heat sterilization compared to gas sterilization (Table ). The heat sterilization had a maximum difference of 1.7mm while the gas sterilization had a These findings indicate the necessity of further investigations on the effect of sterilization especially the heat on different 3D printing technologies and materials used as surgical guides. Furthermore, these findings are yet to be confirmed since they are not conclusive due to the small sample size, therefore, for future work we would like to enlarge the sample size and include different printing technologies with complex shapes and sizes. The effect of heat and gas plasma sterilization on 3D printed surgical objects with biocompatible photopolymer material was investigated. At the level of volumetric changes, no difference was found between pre and post- sterilization for both methods evaluated. As for the morphological changes, only differences were noticed with the orthognathic splint object indicating deformity of the splints after sterilization. Larger differences were observed with the heat sterilization, making it less reliable. Further investigations are needed to confirm these findings. No human or animal were used in this study. The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise. Marro A, Bandukwala T, Mak W. Three-dimensional printing and medical imaging: A review of the methods and applications. Curr Probl Mehra P, Miner J, D'Innocenzo R, Nadershah M. Use of 3-d stereolithographic models in oral and maxillofacial surgery. J Maxillofac Oral Vezeau PJ, Koorbusch GF, Draughn RA, Keller JC. Effects of multiple sterilization on surface characteristics and biologic responses Khalil W, EzEldeen M, Van De Casteele E, Validation of cone beam computed tomography-based tooth printing using different three- Evaluation of Dimensional Changes of 3D Printed Models The Open Dentistry Journal, 2018, Volume 12 Shaheen E, Sun Y, Jacobs R, Politis C. Three-dimensional printed final occlusal splint for orthognathic surgery: Design and validation. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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High-level Disinfection, Sterilization, and Antisepsis: Current Issues in Reprocessing Medical and S
High-level Disinfection, Sterilization, and Antisepsis: Current Issues in Reprocessing Medical and S
Technology is rapidly changing many aspects of health care. The intricate design of instruments, the configuration of instrument trays, and evidence-based practice have resulted in the need for complicated and specific reprocessing recommendations from instrument manufacturers.Patient safety depends on instruments that are appropriately cared for and adequately reprocessed (ie, cleaned and disinfected and sterilized). This article covers some current issues that sterile processing and operating room professionals must deal with regarding reprocessing of medical and surgical instruments.2 Comprehensive guide to steam sterilization and sterility assurance in health care facilities. ANSI/AAMI ST79:2006 and ANSI/AAMI ST79/A1:2008 (consolidated text). Accessed January 16, 2013. If packs are found to be wet after sterilization, they should not be released for use. ANSI and AAMI ST79 2 Comprehensive guide to steam sterilization and sterility assurance in health care facilities. ANSI/AAMI ST79:2006 and ANSI/AAMI ST79/A1:2008 (consolidated text). Accessed January 16, 2013. recommends any set containing moisture inside the container system should be considered contaminated because there are no scientific studies to prove otherwise. A package is considered a wet pack if moisture in the form of dampness, droplets, or puddles of water is found on or within a textile pack, instrument, basin set, or rigid container or containment devices after the sterilization and cool-down process.If packs are found to be wet after sterilization, they should not be released for use. ANSI and AAMI ST79recommends any set containing moisture inside the container system should be considered contaminated because there are no scientific studies to prove otherwise. Wet pack issues should be explored to resolve the problems. Internal or external moisture has the potential to provide pathways for microorganisms to go into the package, contaminating the contents. Moisture found on the outside of a package is usually caused by condensation dripping from above. This is sometimes the result of improper loading of the cart. Moisture found on the inside of a package can also be the result of a too-large metal mass that can trap water, an overloaded tray, or lack of absorbent material such as towels or textiles. 4 Recommended practices for selection and use of packaging systems. Association of periOperative Registered Nurses Web site. Accessed January 16, 2013. Precondition of the load is 1 method frequently used to minimize wet pack issues. To precondition a load, place the instruments inside the steam sterilizer with the door closed for 10-15 minutes before starting the cycle. This will heat the instruments, helping to resolve some wet pack problems not related to steam quality or inadequate packaging or loading configurations. All items removed from the sterilizer after sterilization processing, including items packaged in rigid sterilization container systems, should remain on the sterilizer cart until adequately cooled. They should not be touched during the cooling process. Rigid sterilization container systems should remain on the sterilizer cart until container surfaces are cool to the touch and can be handled safely by the operator with bare hands. The cool-down period begins within the sterilizer chamber. The door may be opened slightly at the end of the cycle and the items left inside for a period of time in order to reduce the potential for condensation formation. 2 Comprehensive guide to steam sterilization and sterility assurance in health care facilities. ANSI/AAMI ST79:2006 and ANSI/AAMI ST79/A1:2008 (consolidated text). Accessed January 16, 2013. The time allowed for cooling should take into account the type of sterilizer being used, the design of the device being sterilized, the temperature and humidity of the ambient environment, and the type of packaging used. A minimum cooling time of 30 minutes is recommended. During cooling, the sterilizer cart should be placed in a low-traffic area where there are no air-conditioning or other cold-air vents in close proximity. Warm items should never be transferred from the cart to cold metal racks or shelves for cooling or placed within dust covers before completion of the cooling process. 2 Comprehensive guide to steam sterilization and sterility assurance in health care facilities. ANSI/AAMI ST79:2006 and ANSI/AAMI ST79/A1:2008 (consolidated text). Accessed January 16, 2013. Sterilized packages should not be touched until after the cool-down period. Cooling packages is an important step in preventing wet packs. According to sterilizer unloading procedures in ANSI and AAMI ST79 section 8.8.1:12 Loaner instrumentation: SPD and OR working together to manage loaner instrumentation. AORN recommended practices documents 4 Recommended practices for selection and use of packaging systems. Association of periOperative Registered Nurses Web site. Accessed January 16, 2013. state: "A formalized program between healthcare organizations and healthcare industry representatives should be established for the receipt and use of loaner instrumentation." Facilities frequently borrow surgical instruments or implants for specialty operative procedures. The management of loaner instrumentation and implants is recognized as a concern by many health care professionals.AORN recommended practices documentsstate: "A formalized program between healthcare organizations and healthcare industry representatives should be established for the receipt and use of loaner instrumentation." 12 Loaner instrumentation: SPD and OR working together to manage loaner instrumentation. The International Association of Healthcare Central Service Materiel Management (IAHCSMM) agrees 13 IAHCSMM position paper on the management of loaner instrumentation. Accessed January 17, 2013. that health care facilities that borrow surgical instruments should have a well-developed loaner program and written policy that establishes standardized receipt and use of all loaner instrumentation. Because of the need for consistent controls this policy should be established with input from sterile processing units, surgeons and operating room staff, and various departments such as infection prevention and control, administration, materials management, and risk management. The IAHCSMM sample policy 13 IAHCSMM position paper on the management of loaner instrumentation. Accessed January 17, 2013. states that health care facilities should have loaner trays at least 2 business days before the scheduled use and, if it is a first-time vendor, the loaned sets should be obtained 3 business days before the scheduled use for in-servicing, inspection, testing, and processing. The IAHCSMM position paper and the policy template can be downloaded from the association's Web site ( A collaborative, well-written policy with specific controls must be in place to ensure successful management of these instruments and implants.The International Association of Healthcare Central Service Materiel Management (IAHCSMM) agreesthat health care facilities that borrow surgical instruments should have a well-developed loaner program and written policy that establishes standardized receipt and use of all loaner instrumentation. Because of the need for consistent controls this policy should be established with input from sterile processing units, surgeons and operating room staff, and various departments such as infection prevention and control, administration, materials management, and risk management. The IAHCSMM sample policystates that health care facilities should have loaner trays at least 2 business days before the scheduled use and, if it is a first-time vendor, the loaned sets should be obtained 3 business days before the scheduled use for in-servicing, inspection, testing, and processing. The IAHCSMM position paper and the policy template can be downloaded from the association's Web site ( www.iahcsmm.org ). 12 Loaner instrumentation: SPD and OR working together to manage loaner instrumentation. Loaning and borrowing of surgical instruments and implants should be consistently managed according to the written policy of each facility. Tracking loaners, either manually or automatically, is necessary for quality controls as well as asset management of loaners.14 Water for the reprocessing of medical devices. Accessed January 16, 2013. P. 37-46. Water quality is a vital concern in all steps of reprocessing surgical and medical instruments. The quality of water used is very important to prolong the life of the medical devices as well as minimizing the risk to patients. 15 Water quality and its impact on the decontamination process. There are 2 general methods used to deal with water impurities related to reprocessing of surgical and medical instruments. The first is the use of a water treatment system that reduces or removes impurities before use. The second method involves adding chemicals to address water impurities during the decontamination process. 14 Water for the reprocessing of medical devices. Accessed January 16, 2013. P. 37-46. Steam quality is affected by the quality of the water being used to generate the steam. Pretreatment of water may be required to eliminate the possibility of residuals or deposits when the steam is used for sterilization, especially in flash sterilization. 14 Water for the reprocessing of medical devices. Accessed January 16, 2013. P. 37-46. , 15 Water quality and its impact on the decontamination process. There are many different types of water purification systems. The most common water treatment is a water softener. A water softener purifies with a process of ion exchange. Other treatments commonly used to purify water are deionization system and reverse osmosis. Deionization removes ions to purify the water and requires tank exchanges. Reverse osmosis purifies by using a semipermable membrane to remove or reduce impurities. Reverse osmosis generally requires more space and has a higher start-up price; however, reverse osmosis systems do not require tank exchanges. 15 Water quality and its impact on the decontamination process. For devices that will come in contact with the bloodstream or sterile areas of the body, high purity water is recommended for the final rinse of the item. Health care facilities should evaluate the water used in the various steps of reprocessing. 15 Water quality and its impact on the decontamination process. Sterile processing staff members should work closely with water service maintenance personnel to establish and monitor the water treatment systems used for cleaning, disinfecting, and sterilizing all reusable devices. Water impurities can also affect the functionality, effectiveness, and life span of automated reprocessing equipment. There are several tools and test strips available to monitor the quality of water used in sterile processing.Sterile processing staff members should work closely with water service maintenance personnel to establish and monitor the water treatment systems used for cleaning, disinfecting, and sterilizing all reusable devices.2 Comprehensive guide to steam sterilization and sterility assurance in health care facilities. ANSI/AAMI ST79:2006 and ANSI/AAMI ST79/A1:2008 (consolidated text). Accessed January 16, 2013. Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) is an acute inflammatory response caused when foreign material is introduced into the anterior chamber of the eye. TASS may lead to severe visual impairment or blindness. Special processing considerations are necessary for eye instrumentation because of the nature of the instruments themselves and the sensitive nature of the eye. 2 Comprehensive guide to steam sterilization and sterility assurance in health care facilities. ANSI/AAMI ST79:2006 and ANSI/AAMI ST79/A1:2008 (consolidated text). Accessed January 16, 2013. addresses TASS and the processing of intraocular surgical instruments. According to AAMI, the introduction of TASS may be associated with specific products, such as contaminated balanced salt solution, detergent residues, endotoxins, preservatives, foreign matter, and residues from sterilization processing. Therefore, particular care must be taken in the processing of intraocular surgical instruments. Many eye instruments are complex and delicate and must be cleaned manually. Manual cleaning methods may be less controlled, so additional care must be taken during processing to ensure effective cleaning and rinsing. Annex N of the ANSI and AAMI ST79addresses TASS and the processing of intraocular surgical instruments. According to AAMI, the introduction of TASS may be associated with specific products, such as contaminated balanced salt solution, detergent residues, endotoxins, preservatives, foreign matter, and residues from sterilization processing. Therefore, particular care must be taken in the processing of intraocular surgical instruments. Many eye instruments are complex and delicate and must be cleaned manually. Manual cleaning methods may be less controlled, so additional care must be taken during processing to ensure effective cleaning and rinsing. 2 Comprehensive guide to steam sterilization and sterility assurance in health care facilities. ANSI/AAMI ST79:2006 and ANSI/AAMI ST79/A1:2008 (consolidated text). Accessed January 16, 2013. highlights those existing recommendations for reducing the risk of TASS. Important elements of a processing program for intraocular surgical instruments include, but are not limited to, maintaining an adequate inventory of eye instruments, allowing adequate time for processing instruments according to MDM instructions, processing intraocular surgical instruments separately from general surgical instruments in a designated cleaning area with dedicated equipment, and following manufacturers' current written instructions for the cleaning and sterilization of eye instruments. Auditing the cleaning process will ensure procedures comply with manufacturer instructions and that personnel performing cleaning procedures have received documented training and have demonstrated competency in the cleaning process. 2 Comprehensive guide to steam sterilization and sterility assurance in health care facilities. ANSI/AAMI ST79:2006 and ANSI/AAMI ST79/A1:2008 (consolidated text). Accessed January 16, 2013. Specific eye instrument cleaning and sterilization recommendations are published by the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery and the American Society of Ophthalmic Registered Nurses. Annex N of AAMI ST79highlights those existing recommendations for reducing the risk of TASS. Important elements of a processing program for intraocular surgical instruments include, but are not limited to, maintaining an adequate inventory of eye instruments, allowing adequate time for processing instruments according to MDM instructions, processing intraocular surgical instruments separately from general surgical instruments in a designated cleaning area with dedicated equipment, and following manufacturers' current written instructions for the cleaning and sterilization of eye instruments. Auditing the cleaning process will ensure procedures comply with manufacturer instructions and that personnel performing cleaning procedures have received documented training and have demonstrated competency in the cleaning process. 2 Comprehensive guide to steam sterilization and sterility assurance in health care facilities. ANSI/AAMI ST79:2006 and ANSI/AAMI ST79/A1:2008 (consolidated text). Accessed January 16, 2013. Only cleaning agents that have been recommended by the specific eye instrument's manufacturer should be used on intraocular instruments. Particular attention should be directed toward ensuring that the specified concentration of the recommended cleaning agent and water quality are used. Final rinsing of instruments should be performed with the volume of sterile, distilled, or deionized water recommended by the manufacturer. Single-use brushes of the correct size should be used and then disposed of. 2 Comprehensive guide to steam sterilization and sterility assurance in health care facilities. ANSI/AAMI ST79:2006 and ANSI/AAMI ST79/A1:2008 (consolidated text). Accessed January 16, 2013. provides detailed recommendations for sterilization processing, including quality control and restrictions regarding the use of flash sterilization. Eye instruments should be sterilized using the methods and conditions recommended in the MDM IFU. The sterilization process should be effective, monitored, and documented. AAMI ST79provides detailed recommendations for sterilization processing, including quality control and restrictions regarding the use of flash sterilization. 2 Comprehensive guide to steam sterilization and sterility assurance in health care facilities. ANSI/AAMI ST79:2006 and ANSI/AAMI ST79/A1:2008 (consolidated text). Accessed January 16, 2013. Cleaning and sterilization equipment, boilers, and water filtration systems should be properly maintained. Otherwise, foreign materials such as endotoxins, heavy metals, or chemical contaminants or impurities may be deposited onto the instruments during processing and induce TASS. Because many different materials can elicit a TASS response if they are inadvertently introduced into the anterior chamber of the eye, the importance of following the proper intraocular surgical instrument processing procedures cannot be overemphasized.Reprocessing plays a very important role in helping to prevent infections. Technology is changing how procedures are performed and requiring more complicated devices to be reprocessed. Published recommended practices are constantly being updated to reflect evidence-based practices and validated practices. Patient safety depends on instruments that are appropriately cared for and effectively reprocessed; therefore, the most current best practices should be identified and followed. Some of the most current issues relating to reprocessing surgical and medical devices are the importance of following the manufacturer's written IFUs, including cycle parameters; a pan weight not exceeding 25 lb; investigating the reason(s) for wet packs; being aware of updates in packaging; managing loaner instrumentation efficiently; monitoring water quality needs; and handling of intraocular instruments appropriately.home made cage disinfectant for rats?I use a mixture of water and white vinegar. It takes away odour, gets rid of bacteria, and its completely safe for your rats. :)
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How to Care for Your Autoclave Or Steam Sterilizer
How to Care for Your Autoclave Or Steam Sterilizer
Caring for your autoclave is very important and can be easily overlooked. We often see this step neglected which can cause high and frequent repair costs. A lack of maintenance will also lead to deterioration and excessive wear of the contents being sterilized. Let's go over a few points to make caring for your autoclave or steam sterilizer easier for you.1) It is very important that the contents being sterilized are clean and free from debris, blood and organic tissue. Otherwise the instruments or sterilizer may become damaged. We strongly recommend using an ultrasonic cleaner such as the DuraSonic to help with the cleaning process.2) Inspect the door gasket for excessive wear or cracking. The gasket and mating surface should be cleaned with a mild detergent such as Spray Nine or Fantastik using a cloth or sponge.3) When running a sterilization cycle it is very important to not overload the sterilizer trays because it will cause inadequate sterilization and drying.4) Always be sure to use a Class 5 Chemical Integrator Test Strip with every cycle for immediate reassurance that the correct parameters have been met to achieve sterilization.1) Keeping your autoclave clean is one of the most important points. Be sure to clean the trays and rack with a Non-Scratch Scour Pad using a mild non-abrasive detergent such as Bon Ami . Always rinse the instrument well and be sure to NOT USE steel wool, wire brush, or bleach.2) Completely drain the water from the reservoir and replenish with fresh distilled water.3) It is strongly recommended to perform a biological live spore test weekly or at least monthly to ensure sterilization.1) Clean the chamber and flush lines using the recommended autoclave cleaner following the cleaner's instructions. Normally you will need 2 gallons of distilled water to complete this job.2) Inspect the cord and plug for overheating and excessive wear-this could be a fire hazard. If this is the case, the power cord should be replaced. Some power cords are quick disconnect and easily replaced. If not, the replacement will need to be done by a certified repair company.On a yearly basis you should have your autoclave inspected, cleaned thoroughly, tested and calibrated. This is typically referred to as a PM or Preventative Maintenance Service. This service would normally include the replacement of wear & tear parts such as gaskets, seals and filters. This will ensure your sterilizer is running properly and remaining in good working order. If your autoclave is used very heavily we would recommend this service bi-annually.Our certified technicians at Duraline Systems can perform this preventative maintenance in the shop or on-site depending on your location. Read More about Autoclave Service with Duraline Systems or call toll free 1-877-561-0500 to speak with a certified autoclave technician today. We work with all major brands Tuttnauer, Midmark Ritter, Scican Statim, Pelton and Crane, Cox, CPAC, Sterident, Dentronix and more. Duraline even offers emergency loaners.Without a doubt, following these guidelines will extend the life of your autoclave and instruments. You can also refer to your operator's manual for more details. For your convenience, we can provide you with a free "caring for your autoclave" poster that you can keep nearby for easy reference!how to sterilize piercing tools?you are courting an infection.... but aside from that - you have to boil them and wipe them down with alcohol. wear glovesWhat's the best way to sterilize body jewelry.?this is goingto sound weird but on the jewlery itself uses saline slaution right after u put it in rubbing ahclHow do I sterilize an apple tree?I understand where you are coming from. I've had some real trouble with trying to make my peanut plants housebroken. Eventually I found that it was my own urine, so I had nothing to worry about. But what I recommend is that you either show some videos to your tree, or more preferably, play a tape discussing the subject of abstinence. Another method is one I have listed below, where you could get a condom for your tree. If he simply must have sex, it is better safe than sorry.Do computer parts cause sterility?There are a lot of precious and rare materials inside computers, so it may be possible
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Discovery of a Female Cat with Testicles Among Weirdest Pet Claims
Discovery of a Female Cat with Testicles Among Weirdest Pet Claims
A North Shore pet owner got the shock of her life to learn her female cat also had testicles. Along with the discovery of a hermaphrodite cat, other owners have been left perplexed after discovering their pets had consumed anything from a roll of dental floss, compact mirror, blanket, sewing needle to a chicken skewer. These discoveries were among the weirdest PetCare claims received by Southern Cross last year. Lisa Newlands adopted her domestic long haired cat Cameo in 2014 with the reassurance she had been spayed. But at the end of last year, Newlands became suspicious about whether it the standard neutering had worked when her usually feisty cat started befriending a stray male. After Cameo became really sick with a high temperature and stopped eating for the second time in two months, an ultrasound revealed she had a large mass in her stomach area. The ginger cat underwent surgery and for the first time in her vet's 13 year career, she discovered two cancerous testicles in the female feline. Cancerous testicles emit oestrogen, which was why the tom cat was hanging around. "The vet was just bamboozled. She had never seen anything like this in her entire career," Newlands said. Cameo's total vet bill was $2531, but Newlands said fortunately $2013 was covered by pet insurance. Newlands estimated Cameo had racked up almost $10,000 in vet bills since she had owned her because she was notorious for getting in fights with other cats and was grateful most of it had been covered by her pet insurance. Another pet owner also claimed on a hefty $8000 vet bill after their german shepherd cut its leg on a metal shoe rack as it tried to escape from two cats. The traumatic incident resulted in the dog having to undergo two surgeries and receive post operative care. In another case, a labrador retriever went under the knife to remove pieces of a blanket it had eaten from its stomach at a cost of $6000. Another owner commented that they were amazed that the chicken skewer eaten by their miniature poodle came out whole after being endoscopically removed. And a hungry beagle's desire to snaffle up a tasty fruit cake also backfired on it after the raisins caused it to have renal failure. The wee beagle had it's kidneys flushed at the vet. But the list of weird claims gets crazier after a french bulldog ate a whole roll dental floss it had found in a visitor's bag and a Shetland sheepdog had to be treated for munching on dish cloths on two separate occasions. The mischievous mutt managed to escape surgery and was given drugs to help it either poo or vomit the rags out. And it wasn't just playful pooches causing their owners angst, a domestic long haired cat also required surgery to remove a sewing needle it had swallowed and devon rex cat had 46 hair ties surgically removed from its stomach. Both treatments cost their owners more than $2000 each. Southern Cross Pet Insurance general manager Anthony McPhail said everyday, unexpected accidents could end up costing pet owners a lot of money at the veterinary clinic. McPhail said while most of the claims processed were for typical illnesses and routine checks, the ones where pets had managed to eat something they shouldn't have still surprised them. He said the stories could be amusing, but still caused quite a lot of stress to the pet and both its owner and their wallet. "We recommend owners prepare for those unexpected veterinary visits by either setting some money aside or considering pet insurance," McPhail said.
2021 07 27
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Citing Privacy Concerns, U.S. Panel Urges End to Secret DNA Testing
Citing Privacy Concerns, U.S. Panel Urges End to Secret DNA Testing
NEW YORK (Reuters) - They're called discreet DNA samples, and the Elk Grove, California, genetic-testing company easyDNA says it can handle many kinds, from toothpicks to tampons. Blood stains from bandages and tampons? Ship them in a paper envelope for paternity, ancestry or health testing. EasyDNA also welcomes cigarette butts (two to four), dental floss ("do not touch the floss with your fingers"), razor clippings, gum, toothpicks, licked stamps and used tissues if the more standard cheek swab or tube of saliva isn't obtainable. If the availability of such services seems like an invitation to mischief or worse - imagine a discarded tissue from a prospective employee being tested to determine whether she's at risk for an expensive disease, for instance - the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues agrees. On Thursday it released a report on privacy concerns triggered by the advent of whole genome sequencing, determining someone's complete DNA make-up. Although sequencing "holds enormous promise for human health and medicine," commission chairwoman Amy Gutmann told reporters on Wednesday, there is a "potential for misuse of this very personal data." "In many states someone can pick up your discarded coffee cup and send it for (DNA) testing," said Gutmann, who is the president of the University of Pennsylvania. "It's not a fantasy to think about how, without baseline privacy protection, people could use this in a way that would be really detrimental," such as by denying someone with a gene that raises their risk of Alzheimer's disease long-term care insurance, or to jack up life insurance premiums for someone with an elevated genetic risk of a deadly cancer that strikes people in middle age. "Those who are willing to share some of the most intimate information about themselves for the sake of medical progress should be assured appropriate confidentiality, for example, about any discovered genetic variations that link to increased likelihood of certain diseases, such as Alzheimer's, diabetes, heart disease and schizophrenia," Gutmann said. The commission took on the issue because whole genome sequencing is poised to become part of mainstream medical care, especially by personalizing medical treatments based on a patient's DNA. That has been driven in large part by dramatic cost reductions, from $2.5 billion per genome in the Human Genome Project of the 1990s and early 2000s to $1,000 soon. Several companies, including Illumina Inc. and Life Technology's Ion Torrent division, sell machines that can sequence a genome for a few hundred dollars, but that does not include the analysis to figure out what the string of 3 billion DNA "letters" means. A three-year-old federal law prohibits discrimination in employment or health insurance based on someone's genetic information but does not address other potential misuses of the data. Without such privacy protection, said Gutmann, people may be reluctant to participate in genetic studies that do whole genome sequencing, for fear their genetic data will not be secure and could be used against them. Recommendations from such panels are not binding but have been used as the basis for policy and legislation. One scenario the panel offers is a "contentious spouse" secretly having a DNA sample sequenced and using it in a custody battle "as evidence of unfitness to parent," perhaps because the DNA showed a genetic risk for mental illness or alcoholism. There are no federal laws against that. Or, the panel said, DNA information might be posted in a social networking site "by a malicious stranger or acquaintance," possibly hurting someone's "chance of finding a spouse, achieving standing in a community, or pursuing a desired career path." The bioethics panel recommends a dozen forms of privacy protection, including that "surreptitious commercial testing" be banned: No gene sequencing or other genetic testing should be permitted without consent from the person the DNA came from, it said. About 25 states currently allow such DNA testing. Critics of the lack of genetic privacy thought greater urgency was needed. "The report lays out a lot of important best practices and does endorse further state and federal regulations, but it doesn't offer a timeline," said Jeremy Gruber, president of the Council for Responsible Genetics, a private group that monitors genetic issues. "What will inevitably happen is whole genome sequencing will enter greater use and we won't have proper regulations to insure privacy." A bill introduced in California, home to many DNA testing companies, by state Senator Alex Padilla would ban surreptitious testing, requiring written authorization from the person the genetic sample was taken from. It is not clear how many labs are willing to analyze DNA without that authorization. In practice, well-known genetic testing companies such as privately held 23andMe test only saliva samples that are too large to acquire surreptitiously, such as from a drinking glass or licked stamp. "A person would really know that they are spitting into a tube," said 23andMe spokeswoman Jane Rubinstein. The full report from the presidential commission is at www.bioethics.gov.
2021 07 28
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How to Cut Corn Off the Cob Easily, Quickly, & Safely
How to Cut Corn Off the Cob Easily, Quickly, & Safely
We've all been there: we're enjoying a nice cob of corn, happily covering our face in butter and salt, when suddenly we realize that there's a thread of corn silk stuck in our teeth. We try to dislodge it with our tongue; no luck. We pick around with our fingers; still no luck. That silk is staying there until you return home to your toothbrush and dental floss. And if you think that corn silk is bad for most people, try having braces!Cutting the kernels off corn on the cob not only helps this problem, but also makes corn a lot easier to cook with.There is a problem, of course. I'd like to think I have above-average knife skills, and yet I'm completely scared to try and cut kernels off corn on the cob. There's no way to balance the oblong cob, and you have to cut straight down. To add insult to injury, the kernels corn go flying everywhere; it's nearly impossible to cut them in a neat and orderly manner. But worry not: there are some surprisingly easy (and safe!) ways to quickly and neatly cut corn off the cob.Use a Bundt or Angel Food Cake PanI only recently found out about this (big thanks to Saveur's amazing video channel), but it's now one of my favorite food hacks. Place one end of the cob in the middle of the pan, which will keep the corn stable while you cut down. Then, as you cut the ears off of the cob, they'll collect in the pan instead of scattering everywhere.Construct a Makeshift Bundt Cake PanIf you don't have a bundt or angel food cake pan, you can make your own version. Start with a cake pan, pie dish, or shallow bowl. Then add any stable item that can hold one end of the corn, such as a narrow cup or a shot glass. (My personal favorite is a toilet paper cardboard tube, but please be careful if you try this: these tubes are remarkably flimsy, so if you apply too much pressure they will collapse while you're cutting.) Then proceed just as you would with a bundt or angel food cake pan, until you have a bowl of perfectly cut corn.Cut the Corn in HalfThis is the quickest way to get the kernels off of the cob, but you want to avoid it unless you have a nice knife and are comfortable using it. Start by cutting the corn in half, which is harder than it looks: the core of the cob is extremely hard, and the corn will want to roll while you're trying to cut. So above all, be careful!Now that the corn is in half, each piece has a flat side, making it easier and safer to balance the cob while you cut it. And with each piece half the size of a full cob of corn, there's less mess when you cut the ears off.Then again, if you're hell-bent on keeping the corn on the cob, but still want to get rid of the strings of silk, you can always microwave it.Get More Food-Cutting HacksSometimes unflavored dental floss is better at cutting certain foods than your knife-seriously! And if cutting tomatoes befuddles you, be sure to read our indispensable guide on how to do it right. As for mangoes, turns out you need to bring a drinking glass in order to cut them the right way.
2021 07 28
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How to Make Jewelry From Seeds
How to Make Jewelry From Seeds
Using natural objects to decorate the human body has been practiced for thousands of years. In this day and age, going green with your jewelry can be fashionable in more ways than one. Grow and dry your own seeds, or find them at grocery stores, garden centers or in your backyard. Making jewelry can help satisfy your creative nature, and if you create patterns and designs that appeal to other people, you could market your jewelry and add some green to your pocketbook by utilizing simple materials provided by Mother Nature.Dried seedsCotton cloth1-inch-thick boardDrill1/16-inch drill bitSmall pliersTape measureScissorsRed marker penNeedlePlain dental flossMasking tapePrepare your seeds by sorting through them to eliminate debris and remove broken or misshapen seeds. Wash any seeds that are dirty, and dry them thoroughly. Rub the seeds with a cotton cloth to make them shine.Place a 1-inch-thick board on your work area, and place a seed on the board. Hold the seed securely with pliers. Drill a hole in the seed with a cordless drill with a 1/16-inch drill bit. so this with all your necklace seeds. Drill holes in all your seeds.Measure 32 inches of dental floss with the tape measure, and cut the floss, using scissors. Use a red marker to mark a spot 2 inches from one end of the dental floss. Mark that spot with a red marker. Mark a spot 2 inches from the other end of the dental floss. Wrap a small piece of masking tape around that end.Thread the end of your dental floss through the tiny opening at the top of your self-threading needle, above the eye. Pull the floss through the eye of your needle until you reach the spot marked with masking tape.Thread one seed at a time onto the floss by pushing the needle through the hole you've drilled in the seed. Pull the first seed to the spot marked with the masking tape. Keep adding seeds until you've filled the length of floss between the red mark and masking tape.Remove the masking tape from the end of the floss, and knot the ends of floss together securely. Clip the loose ends of floss close to the knot with scissors to finish your necklace.Drill holes in the center of each seed or at a point that will allow the seed to be threaded so it will lie at the angle of your choosing. Thread all of one kind of seed onto your floss, or alternate seeds of different shapes and sizes. Store pieces of finished jewelry in tightly covered glass jars.Use caution when using a drill. Place seed jewelry in a deep freeze for a couple of weeks, at least once a year, to kill any insects that may infest the seeds. Never eat seeds that you use to make jewelry.
2021 07 28
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Find the Right and Trustworthy Medical Equipment Suppliers in India
Find the Right and Trustworthy Medical Equipment Suppliers in India
No doubt, healthcare services need a diverse range of products and equipment. In order to fulfill your needs, there are equipment suppliers available who can give you a wide range of medical products and types of equipment. Meanwhile, it is essential to consider specific essentials before you look down for a supplier of medical items.Quality Medical Equipment ImportantThe good medical laboratories in India need some collection of good quality medical equipment. Medical equipment suppliers in India offer types of equipment that technicians would use for the purpose of the analysis of electrolytes and blood gas, immunology, chemistry, microbiology, hematology, urinalysis, coagulation, additionally to a comprehensive collection of ancillary laboratory tools, reagents, and controls. If you wish to have some good quality of products for the medical laboratories, it's especially significant to select a trustworthy medical equipment supplier. The suppliers generally have an account with a wide collection of regular laboratory products.Choose a Reliable dealer or SupplierSelecting a reliable supplier or dealer medical equipment will make sure that the laboratories are completely equipped with a diverse inventory of top quality products from the top brands. Not to add to the fact that all the analytical process will out efficiently and correctly.Apart from that, the recognized suppliers usually give post-sales services and proficient refurbish and packages of the repair that will make sure that all the items supplied are functioning in the right way. They also give the spare parts and delicates for the majority of the products.Medical equipment online storeNot just physical stores, but the online store is also ready to serve your needs for the medical types of equipment. Look for trustworthy suppliers that can give you amazing in-house services which include repairs when required, after-sales assistance and visits for material service.Contact Details:-Website : No: 9247871397 / 0891-2521379EmailId : indianmedicalmart@gmail.comAdrress : Door No: 14-11-2, Ramajogipeta, Maharanipeta,Back Side of Bharathi Hospital, Visakhapatnam - 530002, Andhra Pradesh, India·RELATED QUESTIONWhat are the key performance indicators for a surgical instrument sales company?Would depend on the company selling, but most likely a company selling such equipment would need to track:Number of units soldRevenue generated per month or quarterMRR (monthly recurring revenues)Tracking follow-up dates for re-stocksProduct rotation tracking (if items have an expiry date)Quality assurance (both stock and transport)Invoicing & payment trackingAnd of course, all of the relevant data of their clients.Perhaps worth contacting a hospital administrator and see if they can help you directly. Or indeed, another medical equipment supply company.We have several medical equipment suppliers using our software and each have different metrics and KPI's.Hope this helps!
2021 07 28
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What to Give Up for Lent? Smoking? Cursing? How About ...
What to Give Up for Lent? Smoking? Cursing? How About ...
LONDON - For Lent, many Christians give up indulgences like tobacco, alcohol or sweets, or transgressions like lying and swearing. And for Anglicans, don't forget synthetic fabrics, wet wipes, and those little boxes that hold dental floss.The Church of England has asked people to add a new culprit to the list of ills they forsake for the six weeks of penance that begin on Ash Wednesday: plastics. Specifically, the church wants people to avoid the plastic consumer products and packaging that have become a major environmental problem, polluting oceans and rivers, fouling beaches, killing wildlife and clogging landfills."I think it might well be a first for us, to have an entire Lent program on an environmental issue, but it is very much an integral part of what the church is about," said Ruth Knight, the Church of England's environmental policy officer. In fact, environmental stewardship "to safeguard the integrity of creation" is one of the five "marks of mission" the church lists in describing its purpose.The church's "Lent Plastic Challenge" arrives on a wave of anti-plastic sentiment and legislation in Britain and across Europe, as more people conclude that the first element of the motto "reduce, reuse, recycle" should take precedence. In December, the European Union announced binding waste-reduction targets for member nations, with particular emphasis on plastics.Last month, a ban on plastic microbeads in cosmetic products took effect in Britain, and Prime Minister Theresa May's government committed Britain to a 25-year environmental plan that includes eliminating most plastic waste. Several big cafe and restaurant chains have recently done away with plastic straws, or promised to do so, and the government of Scotland has said it will ban them by the end of next year.[Read how a 9-year-old boy's statistic shaped a debate on straws here.]In Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, stores must charge 5 pence for each single-use shopping bag, whether paper or plastic, and the same charge applies in England for plastic bags at larger retailers. The measure has sharply reduced plastic bag use, and lawmakers say they want to impose charging more widely in England.Last fall, a BBC documentary series on the oceans, Blue Planet II, which dealt extensively with environmental dangers, including from plastics, was the most-viewed program in Britain.The Church of England has created a calendar for a plastics-free Lent, each day bearing either an environmentally-themed Bible verse or a suggestion on how to avoid buying plastics.Along with some of the easier-to-follow suggestions, like buying clothes made of natural fibers or taking reusable bags to the grocery store, are others that might require more effort, like finding dental floss that does not come in a plastic box, or using "a bamboo toothbrush or a toothbrush with recyclable heads.""Yeah, some of them are more difficult than others," Ms. Knight said. "It's definitely not a commandment to do all of them, it's encouragement to do as much as you can."A large part of the world's plastic waste - estimates range from five million to 13 million tons per year - ends up in the oceans. Circulating currents have created immense rotating patches of waste, mostly plastic, in subtropical regions.Wave action and sunlight break floating plastics down in smaller pieces, but some of them are very slow to degrade chemically, and are toxic. Animals eat bits of plastic, with ill effects on them - and further up the food chain, all the way to humans - that are only beginning to be understood.
2021 07 28
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