Understand Sterilizer

An overview of sterilizer

Raza Khan's books include:

Fatawa-e-Mustafwia (Religious rulings Mustafa Raza)

Al Malfoozat of Ala Hazrat (Sayings of Ahmed Raza Khan)

Saman-e-Bakhshish (Compilation of Islamic Poetry in the Honor of Prophet Muhammad)

Taqiya Baazi (Hidden Faces of Wahhabism)

Waqat-us-Sinan، Adkhal-us-Sinan، Qahr Wajid Diyan

Turq-ul-Huda Wal Irshad Ilaa Ahkam Al Amara Wal Jehad

Tasheeh Yaqeen Bar Khatm-e-Naiyeeen

Tardush Shaitan An Sabee Lur Rehman (Fatwa Refuting Government of Saudi Arabia For Imposing Tax on Pilgrims in 1365 A.H)

No Caste is Inferior

Understand  Sterilizer 1

How can we clean or remove the viruses of HCV & HBV from the nail cutter & other things of an infected man ? of sterilizer

UV sterilizer or 250 degree C of hot bed sterilizer

Best Baby Bottle Sterilizer

What is the best baby bottle sterilizer?

The best baby bottle sterilizer for you will depend on your needs and preference. There are several choices of sterilize and ways to sterilize your pumping equipment or bottles. Firstly, microwave sterilizers. These are containers in which you fit the bottles and go into a microwave. They are quick and convenient but obviously you need a microwave to use them. One good thing about microwave sterilizers is that you won't need to descale them.

Another option an electric steam sterilizer. This is the one I chose for sterilizing my baby's bottles. The advantages of a steam sterilizer is that its an all one unit so you don't need a microwave. This makes it ideal to take to places if you& are travelling at any point. However, they are usually more expensive than a microwave sterilizer. Also, you have to descale them about once a month.

If you do decide on a microwave sterilizer, there are other options you can take with you when travelling including sterilizing bags. Or just make sure there is a microwave wherever you go.

Additionally, when choosing a baby sterilizer make sure that it fits any bottles that you may have already bought. Some only fit specific brands of bottle whereas others will accommodate lots of different kinds of bottles.

There are also other methods you can use to sanitize and sterilize baby equipement. They include microwave steam sterilizing bags. These are reusuable bags which you can put in the microwave with the equpment you wish to sterlize inside. Other methods include boiling bottles in hot water and put them in a hot wash in the dishwasher. There are advantages and disadvantage with all these methods which are explored in the article.

Read on for reviews, a video of how to sterilize your bottles in a microwave and my top recommendations of the best baby sterilizers.

How to sterilize a baby bottle with a microwave sterilizer

Best Electric Steam Sterilizer

I liked the stand alone unit of an electric steam sterilizer. It is more expensive but it's great for traveling and using in hotel rooms and places without a microwave which is one reason we chose this one.

Best Baby Steriliser in the UK

This article gives the lowdown on the best baby sterilisers available in the UK. It includes the reviews of the Philips Avent brands of sterilisers and the Tommee Tippee sterilisers.

Best Baby Bottle Steriliser

This article looks at the types of bottle and bottle sterilisers on the market. I also tell you which one I used and give a review.

More Methods

I have described two ways to sterilize baby bottles using special units. But there are other options.

Firstly you can sterilize bottles by boiling them. But make sure the bottles you buy are suitable for this. You'll need a large saucepan with a cover. It may be best to get one especially for this purpose. Wash the bottles thoroughly, then submerge them in boiling water for at least 10 minutes. Make sure that there are no air bubbles trapped inside the bottles or teats. Lots of people like this method as it involves no special equipment. Personally, I found it took quite a long time and I liked having a dedicated unit where I could store all my presterilized bottles.

Secondly, if you have a dishwasher which uses a cycle of 80 degrees C or more, then you can sterilize the bottles in there. Be aware that bacteria can begin to form on the bottles as soon as you take them out of the dishwasher so its recommended to fill them wiith formula and use them straightaway.

Thirdly, you can sterilize bottles using cold water and cold water sterilizing tablet. This can be good if you're going away from home for a few days and won't have access to a microwave or electric sterilizer. There are also micro sterilizing bags. These are good for travel if you have a microwave where you are going. Just wash the bottle and parts, then put the bottle into the bag to microwave them. Read more about this below.

Micro Sterilizing Bags

Find below some mircrowave steam sterilizing bags. As already mentioned you need to wash the bottle and its parts, then put it into the bag and microwave the bag to sterilize the contents.

Comments and Feedback

BabyMomof2 on May 12, 2014:

I have the Avent one and can fully recommend it.

justinejamie on July 10, 2011:

I have Chicco steam sterilizer and it's great. The Philips Avent products I have are my baby's bottles. I love them they're really great.Thanks for sharing this.

mikerbowman on November 16, 2010:

This is very useful info! I've been looking around at similar models, but I'd never seen the Philips iQ24 before... seems really effective! I will have to check it out. Thank you!

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Things You May Want to Know About  Sterilizer
Things You May Want to Know About Sterilizer
An Introduction to sterilizerThe International Women's Health Coalition (IWHC) is a non governmental organization founded in 1984 based in New York City. It focuses on issues relating to women and girls' human rights, health and equality and represents part of the women's movement that recognizes that many challenges to gender equality lie in challenges in health issues and in raising families. The IWHC is one of the oldest currently active global feminist groups..A Growers Guide to Mycology of sterilizerAfter the cook, let the sterilizer cool for 1 hour and then clean the surface of the sterilizer BEFORE opening it. When you open the sterilizer there is a brief pressure differential that sucks some air into the sterilizer as the pressurized air inside the sterilizer escapes, and you want the area/surface as clean as possible when this happens.Cleaning Dr Brown's Baby Bottles? of sterilizerHi, I am the mom of two young boys so I follow mom blogs. But I also work for Dr. Brown's so I thought I could help you with your question. I hope the info helps! First of all, regarding the microwave sterilizer, there should have been instructions included in the sterilizer box. I have the instructions in text format as well as in PDF format. I pasted the text format below but it references diagrams which aren't visible in this format. I can e-mail the PDF version to you if you want. Regarding the washing of the bottles... Bottles should be washed with hot soapy water or in a dishwasher prior to using the sterilizer. The sterilizer is not intended to take the place of washing and will not clean the bottles. After the sanitizing cycle is completed wait at least 3 minutes before removing the sterilizer from the microwave, the bottles can then be placed on a drying rack or and dish rack to dry. Bottles should never be assembled if there is any moisture in the bottle, inserts, reservoirs or nipples because this can cause mold. Cleaning And Assembly•Fully disassemble all parts of the feeding bottle before each use.•Thoroughly wash and rinse all parts in hot water and detergent.•Carefully clean nipples, inserts and reservoirs, making sure each hole is completely clean and clear. Be sure to follow the Instructions Sheet supplied with the baby bottles.•Rinse the lid, steam plate and bottom of the Steam Sterilizer thoroughly with clean water.•Place the steam plate onto the bottom, then turn it 90° to ensure that it is in a secure, fixed position. (See Diagram A)•Pour 6 ounces of water into the center of the bottom. Use a graduated feeding bottle to measure the correct amount. Warning: Never put any liquid other than tap water into the sterilizer.Note: Failure to add the right amount of water may cause damage to the products and/or your microwave.For Use With Wide-Neck Bottles And Related Parts•Up to four wide-neck bottles can be sterilized at one time.•Place the bottle neck facing downward and direct it into the round hole with "" stands. (See Diagram B)•Insert the nipple into the collar, then place it between the bottles. (See Diagram C) Note: After sterilization, hold the outer part of the bottle collar to assemble to avoid nipple contamination.•Place the insert downward into the bottle cover (bottle cover should face down-ward), then position in the middle of the steam plate. (See Diagram D)•Place the reservoirs with the nipples and bottles, then position stoppers near the bottles. (See Diagram E)For Use With Standard Bottles And Related Parts•Up to four standard bottles can be sterilized at one time.•Push the bottles into the steam plate's crescent-shaped holes so that they are supported at an approximately 30° to 40° angle. (See Diagram F)•Insert the nipple downward into bottle collar, then direct it into the round hole with "" stands. (See Diagram G)•Note: After sterilization, hold the outer part of the bottle collar to assemble to avoid nipple contamination.•Place the insert upward, in between the bottle and bottle collar. (See Diagram H)•Bottle covers can be placed in the middle of the steam plate. (See Diagram I)•Place the reservoirs with the bottle collars, then position stoppers near the bottles. (See Diagram J)Microwave Instructions•After properly positioning bottles and parts, place the lid on the sterilizer and insert into microwave. Note: The sterilizer should be placed in the center of the microwave.•The exact time necessary to sterilize the bottles depends on the microwave wattage. Please see the attached TABLE for the correct time.•Warning: Wait at least three minutes after the sanitizing cycle has been completed before removing the sterilizer from the microwave to prevent the risk of scalding. Keep out of the reach of children.Microwave Water Sanitizing time Cooling timewattage (ounces) (minutes) (minutes)1000-1100W 6 5 3800-900W 6 6 3500-700W 6 8 3Note: The Dr. Brown's Microwave Steam Sterilizer is specifically designed for Dr. Brown's bottles and accessories.
What Is Plasma Sterilizer?
What Is Plasma Sterilizer?
Here I am sharing about the plasma sterilizer.Plasma sterilizes by a process called oxidation. Plasma is the fourth state of matter like solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Plasma is created when a gas is heated in a strong electromagnetic field. It is an unstable form of matter in which either the number of electrons gets increased or decreased.Plasma is an ionized gas that is not stable either contains a negative or a positive charge. Some examples of naturally occurring plasma are fire, lighting, the stars, and the sun so on.Plasma Sterilizer is also used for software controlled dexterous door locking that means allows operator to release door using the touch screen panel only when it is safe to do.Plasma chamber produce by RF generator on time with specific fiquency. What is plasma sterilizer?.• Related QuestionsHow often should you sterilize baby bottles?Sterilizing bottles typically requires high heat to kill any germs that are on the bottles. An easy option that doesn't require any special equipment is to boil the bottles and nipples. Place them in a pan of water that's deep enough to completely submerge the bottles and accessories. Bring the water to a boil, and simmer the bottles and accessories in the boiling water for 5 minutes.Another option available in most homes is to give the bottles and their accessories a trip through the dishwasher on a high heat setting. Set the wash cycle to "hot," and use a heated drying cycle. Some dishwashers have a specific setting for sanitizing.If you want to sterilize bottles regularly, consider investing in a bottle sterilizer. It uses steam to kill germs in the bottles. You can find freestanding electric sterilizers and units that go into the microwave. Use the manufacturer's instructions to place the individual parts into the sterilizer.How often should you sterilize baby bottles?.------How well do ultraviolet sterilizers work, and do they kill viruses?They work brilliantly, we had one in the genetic labs where I worked many years ago as the UV will destroy any stray DNA that might have got stuck someplace in your equipment and might contaminate your samples.It was also plastered with every warning label in the book and had an opaque cover that you could not actually open when the thing is in operation. It was hazardous enough that it would fry your eyes and skin with remarkably short exposure. It was probably more dangerous that the radiolabelled nucleotides we used once in while.I understand that there are frauds out there who have been flogging ordinary weak UV lamps of the kind you might see in a nightclub, or that we used in the lab to show up flourescent dyes, and passing them off as UV sterilisers. Try not be fooled, those things are even weaker than the ones you get in sunbeds. They won't even cause enough minor skin damage to give you a tan, let alone be powerful enough to frazzle a virus.How well do ultraviolet sterilizers work, and do they kill viruses?------Which infectious agent is the most resistant to sterilization?Among the bacteria the most resistant are spore formers since many spores are not destroyed by "sterilizers" that use boiling water. The only way to destroy those bacteria is by temperature above the boiling point, which is why autoclaves that raise the temperature of water to the temperature creating steam are used to sterilize any substance that might contain pathogenic bacteria. But even in those instruments substances must be packed carefully to be sure the bacteria are exposed to the high temperature. When you are in a beauty salon, or other place that has those small containers marked "sterilizers" - they are not sterilizers, they "sanitize" substances that make most products safe, but if any of the materials they put in those and let them soak in hot water (frequently they do not even bring the water to boiling) happen to be spore forming bacteria, the materials they remove may have spores that can germinate to a form that causes infectious diseases. This is mostly a problem in dental and doctor's offices that rely on these so-called "sterilizers" but salons that do pedicures and other procedures that contaminate instruments can also spread some diseases because of this faulty procedure.Examples of the most serious spore forming pathogenic bacteria are those that cause anthrax, some forms of food poisoning, botulism, tetanus, and other severe disease. Which infectious agent is the most resistant to sterilization?------Can we use disinfectant as a sterilizer?Actually no. Although we talk about the two words as synonymous to each other the words and products are differentA disinfectant kills most of the "bad bugs" while a sterilant kills everything from bacteria to spores to yeast and fungus to virusesSo something that is certified as a disinfectant will NOT necessarily be sterile. This means there may still be spores and other hard to kill organisms.I imagine that there are disinfectants that do sterilize but have only been certified as disinfectants for economic reasons but that is an assumption on my partIf the goal is no bugs then a sterilant is required if all you want to do is kill the most aggressive and sickening stuff then a disinfectant will suffice. I don't know of any sterilants available to the typical consumer BTW so even stuff sold that we all think about are really only disinfectants and not sterilants (Lysol, Clorox Wipes etc)Thanks for the A2A requestDr DThis answer is not a substitute for professional medical advice. This answer is for general informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or (in the United States) 911 immediately. Always seek the advice of your doctor before starting or changing treatment. Quora users who provide responses to health-related questions are intended third party beneficiaries with certain rights under Quora's Terms of Service we use disinfectant as a sterilizer?This answer is not a substitute for professional medical advice. This answer is for general informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or (in the United States) 911 immediately. Always seek the advice of your doctor before starting or changing treatment. Quora users who provide responses to health-related questions are intended third party beneficiaries with certain rights under Quora's Terms of Service------What is a procedure of sterilization with the help of autoclave?Instruments exposed to heated pressurized steam, heated up to 268-273˚F about 131 - 134˚C for 20 minutes, How Do Autoclaves Work?How Autoclaves WorkOnce you close the autoclave sterilizer chamber, a vacuum pump removes all the air from inside the device or it is forced out by pumping in steam. If done the first way, the sterilizer is pumped with high pressured steam to quickly raise the internal temperature. On every autoclave there is a thermometer that is waiting for the thermal sweet point, 268-273 degrees Fahrenheit, and then it starts its timer. During the sterilizing process, steam is continuously entering the autoclave to thoroughly kill all dangerous microorganisms. Once the required time of autoclave sterilization has the elapsed, the chamber will be exhausted of pressure and steam allowing the door to open for cooling and drying of the contents.This answer is not a substitute for professional medical advice. This answer is for general informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or (in the United States) 911 immediately. Always seek the advice of your doctor before starting or changing treatment. Quora users who provide responses to health-related questions are intended third party beneficiaries with certain rights under Quora's Terms of Service is a procedure of sterilization with the help of autoclave?------What are the experiences of mothers using a UV baby bottle sterilizer and dryer?Some mothers complain that there are many tedious steps in a steam steriliser; some mothers are always worried about the danger of high temperature brought by microwave sterilizer; some mothers say steam sterilizer will take a long time to disinfect a baby bottle; some mothers concern about the mildew under the moist store condition. Therefore, more and more mothers now choose UV baby bottle sterilizer and dryer, 2 in 1 feature to handle all the above comments. This product not only avoid all the disadvantages mentioned above, but also achieve 99% germs killing rate. The following is an experience shared by an American mother using a bottle sterilizer and dryer.With our first baby, we used one of those super-cheap steam sterilizers to clean our son's bottles after every washing. I'd always been concerned about mildew, and working with the hot steam, and how to get bottles sufficiently dry after use. It seems that the negatives possibly outweighed the positives. So when we had twin infants on the way, I decided to look for something better. And lo and behold, I discovered the magic of sterilizers and dryer with UV lamps and circulation fans, that were so popular in Asia. Despite costing nearly 7x what a steam sterilizer does, these things are totally worth it, if you're having to wash several loads of bottles a day. No worries about mildew. Much faster drying than putting on a drying rack. And fewer operations: just load everything up after washing, press a button and go to bed. When you later need the bottles, they'll be ready to go, and completely dry, convenient to operate, quick and safe.What are the experiences of mothers using a UV baby bottle sterilizer and dryer?------What kind of soil does aloe vera prefers?You don't say where you are located in the world so it's hard to know what your soil is like. Succulents in general prefer a fast draining, open, low-organic potting media. Bagged brown potting soil or high-organic, clay soil is not the best choice. Anything with peat will make it very difficult (impossible) to re-wet once it dries out. There are several commercial cactus and succulent potting mixes available either in stores or online. Supplement that with pumice, pearlite or a calcined clay product to create open spaces and a reserve of moisture.Any nonsense you read about putting succulents in tiny pots is just that; nonsense. The pot size needs to be appropriate for the size and mass of the plant. The growth habit of your plant will also help determine the best pot size. Is this a plant that offsets prolifically, like many Aloe do? You might need a larger pot.Depending on your climate you can use either terra cotta or plastic pots. I prefer lower profile pots, sometimes called "tulip" pots. Any pot should have at least one drain hole.Don't bury the plant too deep, the root/stem junction should be just small bit below the potting media level. You can cover the top of the potting media with fine gravel (3-6mm) generally referred to as top dressing, it's optional, but widely used by cactus and succulent growers. This keeps things neat and clean and keeps moisture away from the base of the plant.Now, you can pot your plant in a tiny pot with peat-based soil and it will probably survive, if you want it to thrive it needs a potting mix closer to habitat.Good luck!
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Uv Food Sterilizer
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Uv Food Sterilizer
1. How do you set up a Salt Water Aquarium?Ask any saltwater aquarium hobbyist and you'll discover that the process of setting up and stocking an aquarium is definitely worth the work and the wait. Saltwater aquarium setup and stocking requires careful effort, especially now that the Internet has afforded hobbyists access to many rare and/or demanding species of fish and invertebrates. Many of the available species also have special compatibility requirements which you must address during the stocking process. This article details the five phases involved in successfully setting up and stocking a marine aquarium. Phase 1 - Prepare your aquarium water Set up the aquarium and install all filtration equipment. Fill the aquarium with freshwater that has ideally been treated by reverse osmosis. If you must use untreated city water, add a quality liquid dechlorinator to remove chlorine from the water. Next, add salt by carefully following the instructions on the salt mix. Use a hydrometer to monitor and raise salinity to the desired level. Install the aquarium heater and set to the desired temperature. Allow the system to run for a few days to ensure a constant water temperature and proper operation of all equipment. Phase 2 - Build your aquarium "foundation" After your aquarium has run successfully for a few days, start building your "foundation" of aragonite-based substrate and live rock. You might also consider adding 2-3 inches of live sand, which seeds the sand bed with beneficial bacteria and micro-organisms. If you need assistance in determining the proper amount of sand for your aquarium, please feel free to contact Drs. Foster & Smith. After you've added your substrate and live sand, add your live rock. Live rock is porous, aragonite-based rock harvested from the rubble zones of ocean reefs. In addition to harboring large amounts of beneficial bacteria and micro-organisms, live rock also provides aquarium inhabitants with safe hiding spaces and helps maintain healthy water parameters. Live rock offers aesthetic appeal and biological filtration while providing the necessary habitat and nutrition for your fish and invertebrates. You can choose from several varieties of live rock - variations in color, shape, and associated marine life are dependent upon the geographic area in which the live rock originated. As a general rule, add approximately 1-1/2 pounds of rock per gallon of water in your aquarium. The exact amount you should add will vary by the type of rock you choose. Be sure to follow the recommendations that accompany your chosen live rock. Your live rock must be fully cured before you can add any fish or invertebrates to your aquarium. The curing process, which initiates the Nitrogen Cycle, typically takes 4-5 weeks. During this time, you must also perform weekly 25% water changes. To start your live rock curing, stack the rock loosely in your aquarium. Try to build as many caves as possible. This allows fish to swim freely within the rockwork, and provides the rock with good water circulation. Also, be sure to stack your rocks right side up - turn the side of the rock with the most color upward. This will help ensure proper lighting conditions for both the colorful coralline algae, which requires bright light, and the sponges, which require low light. Please note: during the curing process, you must keep the aquarium dark to inhibit algae growth - provide illumination only briefly when checking progress. Phase 3 - Add lighting and an Algae Attack Pack Once your live rock has fully cured, and the biological filtration is mature, you can add your aquaria. However, as a final precaution before adding aquaria, test your ammonia and nitrite levels to ensure they are at 0 ppm. At this time, you should also set up your lighting system with a common appliance timer set to illuminate the aquarium 10-12 hours per day. The following few weeks after adding lighting, you will most likely experience an algae bloom. To combat this, you should add an algae attack pack to your aquarium. Follow the acclimation procedure included with the pack and allow your aquarium's biological filtration to catch up to the new increased biological load. The biological filtration will quickly accommodate the new inhabitants, due to the fully cured live rock in the system. After a few days, test the ammonia and nitrite levels - when they reach 0, you can begin adding fish and invertebrates. Phase 4 - Begin adding fish and invertebrates After you've cured your live rock, illuminated your aquarium, and taken care of any subsequent algae blooms, your aquarium is ready for fish and invertebrates. Before adding any fish and/or invertebrates, be sure you're familiar with any compatibility issues that may exist among your desired species. Also, be sure to stock your aquarium gradually to allow the biological filtration to catch up to the new aquarium inhabitants. When planning your initial and additional aquaria orders, first test ammonia and nitrite levels and make sure the levels reach and remain at zero for at least a few weeks. Once the levels are stable at zero, you can safely order - then add - new fish and/or invertebrates. If you're not already familiar with the temperament, environmental requirements, and maintenance/aquarist expertise level of your desired species, offers helpful, concise quick stats with that information for each fish and/or invertebrate. also offers a comprehensive compatibility chart to help you determine whether your desired species are compatible with one another. The first series of fish and invertebrates you add to your aquarium must be the most docile of your desired species. This will allow them to become accustomed to the aquarium before you add larger, more active, more aggressive species. After giving your new arrivals at least a few weeks to become acclimated, follow up gradually with the larger, more active species. You may also be wondering just how many fish you can successfully keep in your aquarium. While many variables affect that answer, a general rule is to stock no more than an inch of fully grown fish per gallon of water in your aquarium. For example, if you have a 30-gallon aquarium, ideally stock no more than 15 total inches of fully grown fish. Remember to consider your desired fishes' maximum size when calculating this amount. Phase 5 - Add a Detritus Attack Pack Now that you've established your aquarium and added fish and invertebrates, you should add a Detritus Attack Pack to help maintain healthy water parameters. The invertebrates in these attack packs feed on leftover food and waste from fish and other invertebrates. If insufficient detritus-eating invertebrates are present, the unconsumed food and waste will ultimately serve as nutrients for unwanted algae. Simply choose the Detritus Attack Pack that fits the size of your aquarium. In Conclusion The above steps should simplify and demystify the process of successfully setting up and stocking a marine aquarium. Most importantly - and prior to investing in and setting up aquarium equipment - research the needs of your desired fish and invertebrates to ensure from the start that you have the time, energy, and resources to invest into their care. And be sure to resist the temptation to add all your inhabitants at once - by stocking your aquarium slowly, you will greatly increase your inhabitants' chances for survival, as well as your chances for long-term success. With the proper setup, as well as diligence, patience, and care, your saltwater aquarium and its inhabitants will thrive while you enjoy a beautiful, fascinating ocean setting in your own home.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Sterilizer
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Sterilizer
1. What is a procedure of sterilization with the help of autoclave?Instruments exposed to heated pressurized steam, heated up to 268-273ËšF about 131 - 134ËšC for 20 minutes, How Do Autoclaves Work?How Autoclaves WorkOnce you close the autoclave sterilizer chamber, a vacuum pump removes all the air from inside the device or it is forced out by pumping in steam. If done the first way, the sterilizer is pumped with high pressured steam to quickly raise the internal temperature. On every autoclave there is a thermometer that is waiting for the thermal sweet point, 268-273 degrees Fahrenheit, and then it starts its timer. During the sterilizing process, steam is continuously entering the autoclave to thoroughly kill all dangerous microorganisms. Once the required time of autoclave sterilization has the elapsed, the chamber will be exhausted of pressure and steam allowing the door to open for cooling and drying of the contents.This answer is not a substitute for professional medical advice. This answer is for general informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or (in the United States) 911 immediately. Always seek the advice of your doctor before starting or changing treatment. Quora users who provide responses to health-related questions are intended third party beneficiaries with certain rights under Quora's Terms of Service is a procedure of sterilization with the help of autoclave?------2. What kind of soil does aloe vera prefers?You don't say where you are located in the world so it's hard to know what your soil is like. Succulents in general prefer a fast draining, open, low-organic potting media. Bagged brown potting soil or high-organic, clay soil is not the best choice. Anything with peat will make it very difficult (impossible) to re-wet once it dries out. There are several commercial cactus and succulent potting mixes available either in stores or online. Supplement that with pumice, pearlite or a calcined clay product to create open spaces and a reserve of moisture.Any nonsense you read about putting succulents in tiny pots is just that; nonsense. The pot size needs to be appropriate for the size and mass of the plant. The growth habit of your plant will also help determine the best pot size. Is this a plant that offsets prolifically, like many Aloe do? You might need a larger pot.Depending on your climate you can use either terra cotta or plastic pots. I prefer lower profile pots, sometimes called "tulip" pots. Any pot should have at least one drain hole.Don't bury the plant too deep, the root/stem junction should be just small bit below the potting media level. You can cover the top of the potting media with fine gravel (3-6mm) generally referred to as top dressing, it's optional, but widely used by cactus and succulent growers. This keeps things neat and clean and keeps moisture away from the base of the plant.Now, you can pot your plant in a tiny pot with peat-based soil and it will probably survive, if you want it to thrive it needs a potting mix closer to habitat.Good luck!------3. How well do ultraviolet sterilizers work, and do they kill viruses?They work brilliantly, we had one in the genetic labs where I worked many years ago as the UV will destroy any stray DNA that might have got stuck someplace in your equipment and might contaminate your samples.It was also plastered with every warning label in the book and had an opaque cover that you could not actually open when the thing is in operation. It was hazardous enough that it would fry your eyes and skin with remarkably short exposure. It was probably more dangerous that the radiolabelled nucleotides we used once in while.I understand that there are frauds out there who have been flogging ordinary weak UV lamps of the kind you might see in a nightclub, or that we used in the lab to show up flourescent dyes, and passing them off as UV sterilisers. Try not be fooled, those things are even weaker than the ones you get in sunbeds. They won't even cause enough minor skin damage to give you a tan, let alone be powerful enough to frazzle a virus.How well do ultraviolet sterilizers work, and do they kill viruses?------4. What's the photocatalytic medical air sterilizer working principle?I used Mingtai photocatalytic medical air sterilizer before, its mainly refers to the activation of nano-titanium dioxide photocatalyst through a certain level of light irradiation, resulting in highly oxidizable hydroxyl radicals, through the hydroxyl radical OH locking the air harmful ingredients, decomposition of harmful gases, bacteria and viruses, which effectively degrade toxic and harmful substances in the air and kill micro-organisms.What's the photocatalytic medical air sterilizer working principle?------5. Compared with other medical air sterilizer, what's the UV medical air sterilizer advantage?According to my experience, I think is has below advantages:1. High efficiency sterilization: UV can reach 99% sterilization rate within 1 or 2 seconds for bacteria and virus2. No secondary pollution: Mingtai UV sterilization does not add any chemicals, so it will not produce secondary pollution to the surrounding environment, do not change any component of the air3. Safety: Traditional disinfection need disinfectant such as chloride or ozone, those disinfectant are highly toxic, flammable substances, but Mingtai UV disinfection system does not have such security riskCompared with other medical air sterilizer, what's the UV medical air sterilizer advantage?------6. How often should you sterilize baby bottles?Sterilizing bottles typically requires high heat to kill any germs that are on the bottles. An easy option that doesn't require any special equipment is to boil the bottles and nipples. Place them in a pan of water that's deep enough to completely submerge the bottles and accessories. Bring the water to a boil, and simmer the bottles and accessories in the boiling water for 5 minutes.Another option available in most homes is to give the bottles and their accessories a trip through the dishwasher on a high heat setting. Set the wash cycle to "hot," and use a heated drying cycle. Some dishwashers have a specific setting for sanitizing.If you want to sterilize bottles regularly, consider investing in a bottle sterilizer. It uses steam to kill germs in the bottles. You can find freestanding electric sterilizers and units that go into the microwave. Use the manufacturer's instructions to place the individual parts into the sterilizer.How often should you sterilize baby bottles?.------7. Should I have a sterilizer for mushroom spawn production?Should I have a sterilizer for mushroom spawn production? Probably, but it depends on what kind of mushrooms you are growing.There are mushrooms that are not sensitive to contamination / competition - like Trametes versicolor - Wikipedia. I've sometimes gotten mycelia by putting wild specimens into zip lock bags with moist cardboard or moist wood chips. I think Pleurotus ostreatus - Wikipedia isn't fussy about sterilization.Common button mushrooms (agarics), and all of the Psilocybe - Wikipedia will require good sterilization.At home one often uses a pressure cooker, and large ones can often be found used at reasonable prices. Should I have a sterilizer for mushroom spawn production?------8. What are the benefits of a menstrual cup sterilizer?I personally prefer sirona menstrual cup sterilizer.It's very easy to use and compact, leaving your menstrual cup perfectly disinfected and ready to be stored for next cycle. Also it Comes with automatic power-off for complete safety. Sirona Menstrual Cup Sterilizer is 100% BPA-Free, i.e., no harmful industrial chemicals are used in the manufacturing of the sterilizer. Also You can sterilize your cup easily without the hassle of boiling water or wasting your precious time. What are the benefits of a menstrual cup sterilizer?------9. Which infectious agent is the most resistant to sterilization?Among the bacteria the most resistant are spore formers since many spores are not destroyed by "sterilizers" that use boiling water. The only way to destroy those bacteria is by temperature above the boiling point, which is why autoclaves that raise the temperature of water to the temperature creating steam are used to sterilize any substance that might contain pathogenic bacteria. But even in those instruments substances must be packed carefully to be sure the bacteria are exposed to the high temperature. When you are in a beauty salon, or other place that has those small containers marked "sterilizers" - they are not sterilizers, they "sanitize" substances that make most products safe, but if any of the materials they put in those and let them soak in hot water (frequently they do not even bring the water to boiling) happen to be spore forming bacteria, the materials they remove may have spores that can germinate to a form that causes infectious diseases. This is mostly a problem in dental and doctor's offices that rely on these so-called "sterilizers" but salons that do pedicures and other procedures that contaminate instruments can also spread some diseases because of this faulty procedure.Examples of the most serious spore forming pathogenic bacteria are those that cause anthrax, some forms of food poisoning, botulism, tetanus, and other severe disease. Which infectious agent is the most resistant to sterilization?------10. Where can I get the best UV light sterilizer?Hello People,UV light is a reliable, well-studied antimicrobial technology. It works primarily by destroying the DNA inside bacteria, viruses, and fungi. With a good quality UV light sterilizer, you can easily kill the bacteria and disinfect various things like mobile, keys, earphones, masks, and more. It is highly recommended to use it safely with complete instructions.I would suggest you to get it from Landlite Philippines Corporation. It is an online store that provides high-quality UV light sterilization suitable for office, hospital, factory, and big shopping malls. The UV light sterilizer available at Landlite Philippines Corporation kills 99.9% of bacteria and viruses. Also, it has various features like Remote control, adjustable timer, and more.Hope it helps!!Where can I get the best UV light sterilizer?.------11. What is plasma sterilizer?Here I am sharing about the plasma sterilizer.Plasma sterilizes by a process called oxidation. Plasma is the fourth state of matter like solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Plasma is created when a gas is heated in a strong electromagnetic field. It is an unstable form of matter in which either the number of electrons gets increased or decreased.Plasma is an ionized gas that is not stable either contains a negative or a positive charge. Some examples of naturally occurring plasma are fire, lighting, the stars, and the sun so on.Plasma Sterilizer is also used for software controlled dexterous door locking that means allows operator to release door using the touch screen panel only when it is safe to do.Plasma chamber produce by RF generator on time with specific fiquency. What is plasma sterilizer?.------12. What is the difference between sterilizer and sanitizer?A sterilizer is a means to render all biological material 100% inactive. The use of an autoclave utilizes time, heat, and pressure to kill all biologicals inactive. UV radiation exposure given for an adequate time will sterilize surfaces and atomic radiation exposure for a sufficient amount of time will also sterilize materials. A sanitizer is typically only chemical application and will only provide a 99% kill rate to biological materials. There is a very significant difference between 99.99% kill rate versus 100% when there are many, many millions of biologicals present. What is the difference between sterilizer and sanitizer?------13. Using a baby bottle sterilizer for piercing equipment?I'm not familiar with the specs of a baby bottle sterilizer. But instead of an autoclave, I know pressure cookers have been substituted. The better ones have pressure gauges, and start at about $80 and end at some pretty outrageous prices......I just Googled "baby bottle sterilizer". Not sure that I would trust that any more than just boiling the instruments in water.See: ------14. What are the features of a menstrual cup sterilizer?A menstrual cup is an excellent alternative to disposable pads and tampons. Not only that it can be worn for up to 10-12 consecutive hours, it is also reusable. Simply empty the content, wash the cup well, and just reinsert it back again. That's how convenient it is to have one.I use Sirona menstrual cup sterilizer to sterilize my menstrual cup.Following are its features :It should be convenient. Maintains pH balanceQuickBPA freeAutomatic switch offHassle free sterilizingEfficientWhat are the features of a menstrual cup sterilizer?
Liner Ponds and Lawsuits
Liner Ponds and Lawsuits
For thirty years I have been designing and constructing waterfalls and ponds the professional way, using 3500 psi concrete reinforced with rebar and coated with an industrial grade concrete sealer. With over 2,000 projects to date, not one has cracked or leaked. Approximately fifteen years ago, Greg Whitstock of Aquascape Company decided to capitalize on the use of rubber sheeting, a material used to cover flat roofs. He changed the name of "roof liner" to "pond liner" and built a pond in his back yard. He tells the story that he had a cement pond that continually cracked and leaked, so he pulled it out and replaced the cement with this rubber material. To this day, he instructs his dealers and contractors to tell their prospective clients that concrete ponds crack and leak and cost more to build, and that liner ponds are warranted for twenty to thirty years. Sometimes telling a half truth is the same as telling a lie. I have ripped out many defective concrete ponds and replaced them with properly installed concrete, constructed with rebar, not with rubber liners as Aquascape does. Why? Because the concrete ponds I replaced were poorly constructed, which is why they cracked. Some were made with mortar mix and chicken wire, or concrete without reinforcement or concrete that contained "cold joints" from pouring the concrete over a period of several days. Plus, some were made with improper proportions of cement and gravel. If 3500 psi concrete is used with stealth fiber mix added and used with rebar eight to ten inches on center, it will never crack, not even from frost or freezing. On the other hand, what the liner guys will purposely fail to tell you is that the twenty-year warranty for a liner is only against factory defects. What they will not tell you is that liners are vulnerable to many different elements. Last year I got a call from a client who told me they were buying a home in Rancho Santa Fe, California, and they needed me to look at a waterfall and pond that leaked. They told me that the owners had paid a pond liner company $276,000 to build this water feature. The waterfall measured ten feet wide and fifty feet high, consisting of boulders that weighed between one and five tons each. In less than two months it began leaking and got increasingly worse over the next five to six months. They called the contractor and he came out and did an investigation and pointed out the rat and gopher holes that had been burrowed out at the entrances in the outer bordering rocks. He then explained that the warranty only covered factory defects, not holes made by rodents. My clients called another liner company to fix the leaks. Because it would be too expensive to remove all the boulders and rocks to examine the liner, they simply mixed up a sloppy batch of Thoroseal and painted around every rock in the falls. Talk about ugly! They charged the homeowner $75,000 and within weeks it was leaking again. But they couldn't get the company to come back. I wonder why? When they had told me all this, my recommendation to them was to remove all the boulders and create a concrete shell reinforced by rebar. I made the waterfall wider and taller and added a pond with a large tulip fountain at the top. I made the pond at the bottom twice as wide and doubled its length. In addition, I replaced their 2-hp pump with five 3-hp high-efficiency pumps. Plus, I added a 200-watt ultraviolet sterilizer light, a 6000-gallon pressure bead filter, fifty-six 20-watt spot and submersible lights, and an electronic Aquafill auto-level control system. All this was added for $200,000, a full $76,000 less than the liner guy. Now the homeowners have a waterfall and ponds that will last for decades and require minimal maintenance. What's more, all the rocks and boulders are mortared in place so that, unlike liners, there is no danger of them moving when walked on. Much of my work over the last 25 years has been replacing leaky liner ponds with concrete, rebar and rocks. And every one of them won their lawsuits against the liner pond contractors, primarily because of their deceptive sales practices. If you are a liner guy, why not start doing it the professional way instead of using shortcuts, and inferior materials and components... the "get rich quick" approach. If you are just looking to , now you know how: reinforced concrete.
Understand  Sterilizer
Understand Sterilizer
An overview of sterilizerThe names "Ben-Ishmael Tribe," and "Tribe of Ishmael", were applied to poor, Upland Southern residents of Indianapolis, Indiana during the late 19th century because of their supposed association with the Ishmael family. Records of the Ishmael family show that it originally hailed from Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, and that its patriarch, Benjamin Ishmael, served in the American Continental Army during the Revolutionary War.The Ishmaels, known locally for abstaining from the wage labor economy in Indianapolis, received attention from eugenics advocates starting in 1877 with the Reverend Oscar McCulloch, and his assistant James Frank Wright. Following McCullochs published report in 1888 regarding the Tribe of Ishmael, eugenicists such as Charles Estabrook and Harry Laughlin used the family to argue for sterilization laws called the Indiana Plan. The family name was also invoked during Congressional hearings that led to the passage of the Immigration Act of 1924.After mostly slipping out of national consciousness for much of the 20th century, the history of the Ishmael tribe was radically reinvented by Hugo Prosper Leaming in an essay called The Ben Ishmael Tribe: A Fugitive Nation" of the Old Northwest. Leaming argued that the family was not simply a poor white Christian family, but actually a Muslim tri-racial sect of indigenous peoples Europeans and enslaved Africans. Much of Leamings narrative was refuted by the extensively researched 2009 book Inventing Americas Worst Family: Eugenics, Islam and the Fall and Rise of the Tribe of Ishmael by Nathaniel Deutsch, a professor of Literature and History at the University of California, Santa Cruz.Reinventing the Tribe of Ishmael of sterilizerThe Tribe of Ishmael was largely forgotten in American culture, until 1977, one hundred years since their initial "discovery," when a Unitarian minister name Hugo Prosper Leaming radically reinvented the family's history in his essay The Ben Ishmael Tribe: A Fugitive "Nation" of the Old Northwest. Leaming was fascinated by the Ishmael clan, and his reinvention of their narrative coincided with his own radical reinvention, as he too claimed a tri-racial ethnicity and adopted a Muslim faith. Often lacking evidence, Leaming (later known as Hugo Prosper Leaming Bey, a reflection of his newfound Muslim identity) wrote that the family was a tightly knit nomadic community of African, Native American, and poor white descent, while selectively quoting from the family histories written by McCulloch and Wright. Leaming proclaimed that previous Ishmael campsites formed the nuclei of present-day black communities, and Ishmaelites of the diaspora participated in the rise of black nationalism, perhaps even contributing memories of African Islam to the new Black Muslim movements.To back up this assertion, Leaming chose sections of documents regarding the Tribe of Ishmael to make it appear the family regularly engaged in polygamy, went on pilgrimages similar to the Muslim Hajj, had matriarchal "queens," and avoided alcohol - all for religious reasons. In addition, Leaming claimed that before Noble Drew Ali, Master Wallace Fard Muhammad, Elijah Muhammed and Malcolm X, there was Ben Ishmael, an "earlier Islamic saint or Imam," in America. Leaming simultaneously speculated that the "Ben-Ishmael" family name was actually derived from Arabic to mean " " (Ibn Ismail) or "Son of Ishmael," an Islamic reference to Muslims' supposed lineage through Ishmael, son of Abraham, via Muhammad.Leamings reinvention of the Ishmael story as a diverse, crypto-Muslim tribe, bridging the gap of "African and American Islam," and comprising a "lost-found nation in the wilderness of North America," was discredited by Nathaniel Deutsch in the book Inventing Americas Worst Family: Eugenics, Islam and the Fall and Rise of the Tribe of Ishmael. Deutsch concluded that although much of the fascination with the Tribe of Ishmael has roots in American interest in Islam and the Orient, there is no reason to believe the Ishmael family was anything but a poor Christian family targeted by eugenics researchers.Michael Muhammad Knight has talked about the Ben Ishmael Tribe extensively in books Blue-Eyed Devil and Journey to the End of Islam, where he travels to Indiana and Illinois to visit Mecca, Indiana, Morocco, Indiana, and Mahomet, Illinois in order to learn more about the Ben Ishmael Tribe. His former mentor, Peter Lamborn Wilson introduced him to the history of the Ben Ishmael Tribe and influenced his interest in the group.Reinventing the Tribe of Ishmael of sterilizerThe Tribe of Ishmael was largely forgotten in American culture, until 1977, one hundred years since their initial "discovery," when a Unitarian minister name Hugo Prosper Leaming radically reinvented the family's history in his essay The Ben Ishmael Tribe: A Fugitive "Nation" of the Old Northwest. Leaming was fascinated by the Ishmael clan, and his reinvention of their narrative coincided with his own radical reinvention, as he too claimed a tri-racial ethnicity and adopted a Muslim faith. Often lacking evidence, Leaming (later known as Hugo Prosper Leaming Bey, a reflection of his newfound Muslim identity) wrote that the family was a tightly knit nomadic community of African, Native American, and poor white descent, while selectively quoting from the family histories written by McCulloch and Wright. Leaming proclaimed that previous Ishmael campsites formed the nuclei of present-day black communities, and Ishmaelites of the diaspora participated in the rise of black nationalism, perhaps even contributing memories of African Islam to the new Black Muslim movements.To back up this assertion, Leaming chose sections of documents regarding the Tribe of Ishmael to make it appear the family regularly engaged in polygamy, went on pilgrimages similar to the Muslim Hajj, had matriarchal "queens," and avoided alcohol - all for religious reasons. In addition, Leaming claimed that before Noble Drew Ali, Master Wallace Fard Muhammad, Elijah Muhammed and Malcolm X, there was Ben Ishmael, an "earlier Islamic saint or Imam," in America. Leaming simultaneously speculated that the "Ben-Ishmael" family name was actually derived from Arabic to mean " " (Ibn Ismail) or "Son of Ishmael," an Islamic reference to Muslims' supposed lineage through Ishmael, son of Abraham, via Muhammad.Leamings reinvention of the Ishmael story as a diverse, crypto-Muslim tribe, bridging the gap of "African and American Islam," and comprising a "lost-found nation in the wilderness of North America," was discredited by Nathaniel Deutsch in the book Inventing Americas Worst Family: Eugenics, Islam and the Fall and Rise of the Tribe of Ishmael. Deutsch concluded that although much of the fascination with the Tribe of Ishmael has roots in American interest in Islam and the Orient, there is no reason to believe the Ishmael family was anything but a poor Christian family targeted by eugenics researchers.Michael Muhammad Knight has talked about the Ben Ishmael Tribe extensively in books Blue-Eyed Devil and Journey to the End of Islam, where he travels to Indiana and Illinois to visit Mecca, Indiana, Morocco, Indiana, and Mahomet, Illinois in order to learn more about the Ben Ishmael Tribe. His former mentor, Peter Lamborn Wilson introduced him to the history of the Ben Ishmael Tribe and influenced his interest in the group.
Things You May Want to Know About Sterilizer
Things You May Want to Know About Sterilizer
An overview of sterilizerThe Berlin patient is a phrase that has been used on two distinct and unrelated occasions. In the first case, it was used to describe an anonymous person from Berlin, Germany, who has exhibited prolonged "post-treatment control" of HIV viral load after HIV treatments were interrupted.In the second case, the phrase was used to preserve the anonymity of the first individual who is considered to have been cured of HIV infection, when his case was presented at the 2008 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, where his cure was first announced, and because he lived in, and was treated in Berlin. He chose to come forward and make his name, Timothy Ray Brown, public in late 2010.Eleven years later, nearly on the same date, at the same conference, it was announced that it appeared that a second man had been cured; he was called the "London Patient". The patient described made himself and his name, Adam Castillejo, public in March 2020. He also received a bone marrow transplant to treat a cancer (Hodgkin's lymphoma) but was given weaker immunosuppressive drugs. The selected donor also carried the CCR5-32 mutation.Timothy Ray Brown: the 2008 cured Berlin patient of sterilizerThe most famous Berlin patient is Timothy Ray Brown. He is originally from Seattle, Washington. He was diagnosed with HIV in 1995 and began antiretroviral therapy. In 2006, Brown was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). His physician, Dr. Gero Htter, at Charit Hospital in Berlin, arranged for him to receive a hematopoietic stem cell transplant from a donor with the "delta32" mutation on the CCR5 receptor. This mutation, found at relatively high frequencies in Northern Europeans (16%), results in a mutated CCR5 protein. The majority of HIV cannot enter a human cell without a functional CCR5 gene. An exception to this is a small minority of viruses that use alternate receptors, such as CXCR4 or CCR2. Those individuals who are homozygous for the CCR5 mutation are resistant to HIV and rarely progress to AIDS. Brown received two stem cell transplants from one donor homozygous for the delta32 mutation: one in 2007 and one in 2008. Brown stopped taking his antiretroviral medication on the day of his first transplant. Three months after the first stem cell transplant, levels of HIV rapidly plummeted to undetectable levels while his CD4 T cell count increased. In addition, blood and tissue samples from areas of the body where HIV is known to hide were tested. The results were published in the New England Journal of Medicine. As of 2011, Brown remains off antiretroviral therapy and is considered cured, although some debate exists whether there is no trace of the virus in his body (a "sterilizing" cure) or whether he simply no longer needs treatment (a "functional" cure)..Timothy Ray Brown: the 2008 cured Berlin patient of sterilizerThe most famous Berlin patient is Timothy Ray Brown. He is originally from Seattle, Washington. He was diagnosed with HIV in 1995 and began antiretroviral therapy. In 2006, Brown was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). His physician, Dr. Gero Htter, at Charit Hospital in Berlin, arranged for him to receive a hematopoietic stem cell transplant from a donor with the "delta32" mutation on the CCR5 receptor. This mutation, found at relatively high frequencies in Northern Europeans (16%), results in a mutated CCR5 protein. The majority of HIV cannot enter a human cell without a functional CCR5 gene. An exception to this is a small minority of viruses that use alternate receptors, such as CXCR4 or CCR2. Those individuals who are homozygous for the CCR5 mutation are resistant to HIV and rarely progress to AIDS. Brown received two stem cell transplants from one donor homozygous for the delta32 mutation: one in 2007 and one in 2008. Brown stopped taking his antiretroviral medication on the day of his first transplant. Three months after the first stem cell transplant, levels of HIV rapidly plummeted to undetectable levels while his CD4 T cell count increased. In addition, blood and tissue samples from areas of the body where HIV is known to hide were tested. The results were published in the New England Journal of Medicine. As of 2011, Brown remains off antiretroviral therapy and is considered cured, although some debate exists whether there is no trace of the virus in his body (a "sterilizing" cure) or whether he simply no longer needs treatment (a "functional" cure)..
Know About Sterilizer
Know About Sterilizer
An Introduction to sterilizerSchlegelberger was born into a Protestant salesman's family in Knigsberg. He graduated from the University of Knigsberg or according to documents from his trial the University of Leipzig in 1899 attaining the degree of Doctor of Law. In 1901 Schlegelberger passed the state law examination and became a court Assessor at the Knigsberg local court. In 1904 he became a judge at the State Court in Lyck (now Ek). In early May 1908, he went to the Berlin State Court and in the same year was appointed assistant judge at the Berlin Court of Appeals (Kammergericht). In 1914 he was appointed to the Kammergericht Council (Kammergerichtsrat) in Berlin, where he stayed until 1918.On 1 April 1918 Schlegelberger became an associate at the Reich Justice Office. On 1 October of that year, he was appointed to the Secret Government Court and Executive Council. In 1927, he was appointed as Ministerial Director in the RMJ. Schlegelberger had been teaching in the Faculty of Law at the University of Berlin as an honorary professor since 1922. On 10 October 1931 Schlegelberger was appointed State Secretary in the Reich Ministry of Justice under Justice Minister Franz Grtner and kept this job until Grtner's death in 1941. On 30 January 1938 Schlegelberger joined the Nazi Party on Adolf Hitler's orders.In the Nazi Party of sterilizerAmong Schlegelberger's many works in this time was a bill for the introduction of a new national currency which was supposed to end the hyperinflation to which the Reichsmark was prone. After Franz Grtner's death in 1941, Schlegelberger became provisional Reich Minister of Justice for the years 1941 and 1942, followed then by Otto Thierack. During his time in office the number of death sentences rose sharply. He authored the bills such as the so-called Poland Penal Law Provision (Polenstrafrechtsverordnung) under which Poles were executed for tearing down German posters. Schlegelberger's attitude towards his job may be best encapsulated in a letter to Reich Minister and Chief of the Reich Chancellery Hans Heinrich Lammers:Dear Reich Minister Dr. Lammers,Upon the Fhrer-order of 24 October 1941 forwarded to me through Mr. State Minister and Chief of the Fhrer's and Reich Chancellor's Presidial Chancellery, I have handed the Jew Markus Luftglass, sentenced to 2 years in prison by the Special Court in Katowice, over to the Gestapo for execution.Heil Hitler!Yourmost obedient SchlegelbergerHowever, in a letter to Hans Heinrich Lammers dated 5 April 1942, Schlegelberger suggested some half-Jews be "spared" and given the choice between "evacuation" or sterilization:The measures for the final solution of the Jewish question should extend only to full Jews and descendants of mixed marriages of the first degree, but should not apply to descendants of mixed marriages of the second degree.With regard to the treatment of Jewish descendants of mixed marriages of the first degree, I agree with the conception of the Reich Minister of the Interior which he expressed in his letter of 16 February 1942, to the effect that the prevention of propagation of these descendants of mixed marriages is to be preferred to their being thrown in with the Jews and evacuated. It follows therefrom that the evacuation of those half-Jews who are no more capable of propagation is obviated from the beginning. There is no national interest in dissolving the marriage between such half-Jews and a full-blooded German.Those half-Jews who are capable of propagation should be given the choice to submit to sterilization or to be evacuated in the same manner as Jews.Upon his retirement from the position on 20 August 1942, Hitler gave Schlegelberger an endowment of RM 100,000; in 1944, Hitler allowed him to buy an estate with the money, something that only agricultural experts were entitled to under the rules in force at the time. This would later weigh against him at Nuremberg, for it showed that Hitler thought highly of Schlegelberger.In the Nazi Party of sterilizerAmong Schlegelberger's many works in this time was a bill for the introduction of a new national currency which was supposed to end the hyperinflation to which the Reichsmark was prone. After Franz Grtner's death in 1941, Schlegelberger became provisional Reich Minister of Justice for the years 1941 and 1942, followed then by Otto Thierack. During his time in office the number of death sentences rose sharply. He authored the bills such as the so-called Poland Penal Law Provision (Polenstrafrechtsverordnung) under which Poles were executed for tearing down German posters. Schlegelberger's attitude towards his job may be best encapsulated in a letter to Reich Minister and Chief of the Reich Chancellery Hans Heinrich Lammers:Dear Reich Minister Dr. Lammers,Upon the Fhrer-order of 24 October 1941 forwarded to me through Mr. State Minister and Chief of the Fhrer's and Reich Chancellor's Presidial Chancellery, I have handed the Jew Markus Luftglass, sentenced to 2 years in prison by the Special Court in Katowice, over to the Gestapo for execution.Heil Hitler!Yourmost obedient SchlegelbergerHowever, in a letter to Hans Heinrich Lammers dated 5 April 1942, Schlegelberger suggested some half-Jews be "spared" and given the choice between "evacuation" or sterilization:The measures for the final solution of the Jewish question should extend only to full Jews and descendants of mixed marriages of the first degree, but should not apply to descendants of mixed marriages of the second degree.With regard to the treatment of Jewish descendants of mixed marriages of the first degree, I agree with the conception of the Reich Minister of the Interior which he expressed in his letter of 16 February 1942, to the effect that the prevention of propagation of these descendants of mixed marriages is to be preferred to their being thrown in with the Jews and evacuated. It follows therefrom that the evacuation of those half-Jews who are no more capable of propagation is obviated from the beginning. There is no national interest in dissolving the marriage between such half-Jews and a full-blooded German.Those half-Jews who are capable of propagation should be given the choice to submit to sterilization or to be evacuated in the same manner as Jews.Upon his retirement from the position on 20 August 1942, Hitler gave Schlegelberger an endowment of RM 100,000; in 1944, Hitler allowed him to buy an estate with the money, something that only agricultural experts were entitled to under the rules in force at the time. This would later weigh against him at Nuremberg, for it showed that Hitler thought highly of Schlegelberger.
Knowledge About Sterilizer
Knowledge About Sterilizer
1. Economy of sterilizerGif-sur-Yvette is situated in the "Science Valley" of the Yvette River. Numerous research organizations exist in this area, such as the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), the CEA (Commissariat l'nergie Atomique), Suplec (cole Suprieure d'lectricit), the LGEP (Laboratoire de Gnie lectrique de Paris, associated with Suplec), SOLEIL Synchrotron (Source Optimise de Lumire d'Energie Intermediaire du LURE) and the Institute of Plant Biotechnology. Also, Gif is home to the Centre National d'tudes and of the National Police Academy.The CGT operates, since 1950, a permanent central college of Gif-sur-Yvette, the Benot Frachon Center, situated along the Yvette River.------2. People of sterilizerLouis Sdilot (1599-1672), early Quebec colonistJuliette Adam (18361936), founder of the Nouvelle Revue (1879) and operator of a famous literary club during the Third Republic.The Duke and Duchess of Windsor's former country home, Le Moulin de la Tuilerie, a sprawling dwelling created from an old mill and a number of barns, is located on the outskirts of town. The couple bought the buildings in 1952 from the artist Drian and were weekend residents for some 20 years. It was the only home they owned together. It has been restored as three individual holiday homes which are available to rent through the Landmark Trust and Owners Direct in the UK. Among the Windsors' famous guests at the house were Richard Burton and Elizabeth Taylor, Cecil Beaton and Marlene Dietrich.The artist Fernand Lger died on 17 August 1955 in the house where, in 1972, negotiations were held between Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho which led to the end of the Vietnam War.The actor Richard Bohringer lives in the town. His daughter, actress Romane Bohringer pursued her university studies here.The actress and super-model Nomie Lenoir is from Gif-sur-Yvette, in the l'Abbaye section.Well-known British chemists who have been working at the Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles at Gif include: Derek Barton, Hugh Felkin, Bob Crabtree and Steve Davies.The famous astrophysicist Hubert Reeves lived in La Hacquinire.------3. Transport of sterilizerGif-sur-Yvette is served by two stations on Paris RER line B: Gif-sur-Yvette and Courcelle-sur-Yvette.Like all the train stations on this line, one train goes towards/past Paris (Aroport Charles de Gaulle 2 TGV or Mitry-Claye) and the other goes towards the other end of the line: Saint-Rmy-ls-Chevreuse.The trains arrive generally at 15-minute intervals.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Sterilizer Test
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Sterilizer Test
1. Bottled Beer is CloudyTypical beer recipe instructions are as you mentioned in commentsThese instructions will work fine and make beer, but they won't necessarily make the best (or clearest) beer. Some suppliers have adjusted their recipes to the beer style, adding more time to the instructions. In most cases, 1 week is not long enough for a beer to finish, but the secondary racking will kind of kick it along, though the use of secondary is questioned by some (myself included - I never secondary unless I have another reason to, like racking onto fruit or because I want a cleaner container), but the added time is helpful (whether you moved it or not). Most beers finish fermentation within 7-10 days with temperature control, but this can vary widely depending on the yeast and temperature. However, even after fermentation is finished, most ales will benefit from at least some bulk aging at ale temps; improving the flavor. After that, cold crashing or lagering will help clear a beer (letting the ale sit at cooler temps - the cooler the better). Ales aren't wine, so we aren't talking months, although the stronger the ale, the more time it may take. Giving an extra week or two in the primary, and another week or two at fridge temps can have a significant positive impact on the flavor and clarity of an ale. Lagers benefit from much longer aging, especially at lager temperatures. You can use fining agents, but time is also effective, though it may take longer. Most fining agents take a couple of weeks, which is a good aging period after fermentation is complete anyway, so you really can't go wrong with them. You'll probably find adding a 2 week period without a fining agent will also get you very clear beer, but that will depend on the recipe and method. Aging will typically not benefit the clarity of a wheat beer, as the haze remains in suspension for longer periods (forever?). There is such a thing as kristallweizen, but that normally takes filtration------2. What concentration of hydrogen peroxide kills mold?The CDC Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities provides a good overview of various disinfectants and their effectiveness against different kinds of pathogens, along with citations if you're interested in more detail.This document doesn't evaluate the effectiveness of Hydrogen Peroxide against Stachybotrys (black mold) specifically (the CDC specifically recommends Chlorine Bleach for this purpose), but it does describe it's effectiveness as a fungicide. Note that the level of disinfection needed to control pathogenic fungus in a healthcare setting is likely much higher than needed to control black mold in a house, but it can give you a sense of how effective Hydrogen Peroxide is overall:A 0.5% accelerated hydrogen peroxide demonstrated bactericidal andvirucidal activity in 1 minute and mycobactericidal and fungicidalactivity in 5 minutes 656...A 7% stabilized hydrogen peroxide proved to be sporicidal (6 hours ofexposure), mycobactericidal (20 minutes), fungicidal (5 minutes) atfull strength ... 655...The 7% solution of hydrogen peroxide, tested after 14 days of stress(in the form of germ-loaded carriers and respiratory therapyequipment), was ... fungicidal (>5 log10 reduction in 20minutes),663...A new, rapid-acting 13.4% hydrogen peroxide formulation (that is notyet FDA-cleared) has demonstrated sporicidal, mycobactericidal,fungicidal, and virucidal efficacy. Manufacturer data demonstrate thatthis solution sterilizes in 30 minutes and provides high-level...Commercially available 3% hydrogen peroxide is a stable and effective disinfectant when used on inanimate surfacesdisinfection in 5 minutes 669From this, it seems like you'd want to use accelerated Hydrogen Peroxide, or 7% stabilize Hydrogen Peroxide to ensure fungicidal disinfection. 3% Hydrogen Peroxide is effective against bacteria, but the studies cited didn't test it against fungi.------3. How to create a genetically high IQ population while avoiding regression to the mean as much as possible?How to create a genetically high IQ population while avoiding regression to the mean as much as possible?To avoid the leveling drift (regression to the mean) in a population, what you need to do is Hybridize:A hybrid may occasionally be better fitted to the local environment than the parental lineage and as such natural selection may favor these individuals.The Bell curve is considerably flattened and shifted to the right - as most hybrids don't survive, but those who can thrive, will.So a problem occurs if you wish to genetically isolate a particular population - regression to the mean is the least of your worries if there is no selective pressure to improve the population's intelligence.But I guess you figured that out, so pressure selecting for inteligence to allow for reproduction then:You'd be looking at a form of licensed fertility in the wider population based on whatever test of inteligence you deem appropriate. So let's test people (Vis a vis: Hunger Games like?) at an age before they can reproduce and depending on the outcome, sterilize them (I posit that enforced death is a form of reproductive sterilisation) or support them to breed.The various interactions between intelligence and personality traits are more complex than simple hope would wish. It's kinda difficult to select for just intelligence, intelligent aggressive people will likely always have an edge over the agreeable intelligent ones in any kind of spontaneous combat, or competative environment - will you end up with a society of warlords/conquerors or can you develop a methodology that selects for other characteristics?I feel that rather than answer the question here, I've re-asked it at a slightly higher resolution. Does this framing suit the OP? If not, it's a subject that interests me, let's go further.------4. How to test desert (Dubai-like) conditions when you are in a temperate climateThe usual approach is to use an environmental chamber to control the temperature. Humidity can also be controlled with many or most commercial environmental chambers, but usually high humidity is of concern so there are means to increase the humidity in the chamber by means of evaporating water and measuring Rh with something like a wet bulb/dry bulb hygrometer. Relative humidity will drop as the same volume of air moisture is heated, of course. See the below psychrometric chart from this website: But, as I say, usually low RH is not too much of a concern. It can increase the likelihood of ESD (which you should protect against anyway) and change the mechanical size and characteristics of hygroscopic materials such as polyamide (nylon) but usually it's benign or advantageous. Direct sunlight can cause damage to plastics and other materials and cause high temperatures to occur within an enclosure. I've seen manufacturers of products simply put their products outside in the sunlight for a few months and monitor the deterioration. There are solar simulators but they are not that common for ordinary electronics testing, at least in my experience. You can easily hack the controlled increase in temperature with an enclosure, a temperature controller and a sensor, plus a heater. An ordinary incandescent bulb can serve as a heater. I have a device like that made to sterilize N95 masks, which has almost zero in materials. A commercial environmental chamber might cost $15K, more if you need to simulate high altitudes as well as temperature and humidity.------5. While making pepper oil with dry crushed red pepper, do I need to sterilize the jars to store for up to 6 months?Basic answer: it's generally recommended to sterilize jars before storing low-acid foods at room temperature. (Many canning procedures effectively sterilize the jars during processing.) In your case, you should be certain the jars are clean and thoroughly dry as well.Regarding your overall proposal: I'd only give away food gifts like this if I had prepared them according to an established procedure and recipe tested by a reputable food safety and preservation organization. Your proposal sounds like it could be safe, but I can't find any such recipes at the National Center for Home Food Preservation or similar sources. Generally, most food safety websites don't recommend storing any homemade flavored oils at room temperature or for more than a few days in the refrigerator. (There were some older recommendations that allowed for dried herbs and/or herbs that were strained out of oil after a brief infusion, but even these were found to have a small risk -- because only lab testing can determine whether herbs are dried sufficiently or whether you've managed to strain out all the small particles -- and are no longer listed on most food preservation sites.) Commercial preparations of flavored oils almost exclusively involve prior acidification of the additives to ensure safety.Also, I would note that heating the oil hot enough to kill botulism bacteria will cause it to degrade somewhat in quality and flavor. (This is another reason why commercial preparations use acidification.)Lastly, just my opinion: I don't want to overstate the risk here (which is likely low), but without a tested procedure it's impossible to know for certain when storing low-acid foods at room temperature. And botulism toxin can be deadly. I know it sounds like a nice idea, but I personally would not give flavored oils as gifts. Even if I found a reputable recipe from a food preservation site that had been scientifically tested, the people I give these things to have to trust that I know what I'm doing. Personally, I tend to discard any flavored oils I've received as gifts before using (unless I would trust the person and know how the food was prepared)------6. Do you need to boil bottled waterFirst off, everything has bacteria. It's pretty impossible to remove all bacteria unless you work in a highly sterilized environment. In this case, however, bottled water is mass-filtered and mass-bottled in bottling plants that undoubtedly contain bacteria. No, you don't need to boil bottled water. Boiling water is necessary when you don't know the source of the water, the amount of bacteria, or the types of impurities within the water, i.e. stream water, which nowadays, depending on the stream, I wouldn't recommend drinking from (nevertheless giving it to an 8-month-old). Bottled water manufacturers submit their water to be tested just like any other food, usually vetted through their country's equivalent of the FDA.Sidenote about water and small childrenDon't give your child distilled water, ever. Also, don't give your child too much water. While drinking water is relatively benign for older children all the way up to adults, we usually take in a lot more salts than infants and toddlers. Drinking too much water can cause infants and toddlers to rapidly lose electrolytes which ensure that are intra/extracellular fluids stay conductive. An electrolyte imbalance in the body can have serious side effects including death if not treated quickly.If you are concerned about your child's level of hydration, give them something like Pedialyte or heavily water-dilated low-sugar sports drinks.------7. Super Market Checkout Pricing StrategiesI'm going to try writing a short answer.A private field like this doesn't suggest immutability:This does:If you can break encapsulation and do this:Then you can break encapsulation and do that:Where's the public char Value get return _value; property getter? I see why you don't need one...That Sku struct is essentially... a character. Sure it fulfills the A, B, C sample SKU's from the problem statement, but real-world SKU's could be 10-digit codes... your implementation simply doesn't scale all that well.Does it make sense to treat any '%', '$' and ',' as a SKU? Absolutely not. There's no gain in using a Sku vs. using a char throughout your code!I would have approached the data structure differently. First of all, I would have created a Product class, something like this:Then go on with ProductPricing strategies, without allowing just about any string out there to be treated as a Product.The correct type to use to talk cash, is decimal. By using double, you've exposed yourself to floating-point rounding errors, which is not cool for something granular like a SKU. I'm pretty sure at least one of your tests break if prices start involving non-integer amounts... and if not, then there's a false sense of accuracy going on here - using double for money is going to end up causing rounding errors one way or another, one day or another
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