Things You May Want to Know About Microscope Slide

An Introduction to microscope slide

Surgical pathology is the most significant and time-consuming area of practice for most anatomical pathologists. Surgical pathology involves gross and microscopic examination of surgical specimens, as well as biopsies submitted by surgeons and non-surgeons such as general internists, medical subspecialists, dermatologists, and interventional radiologists.

The practice of surgical pathology allows for definitive diagnosis of disease (or lack thereof) in any case where tissue is surgically removed from a patient. This is usually performed by a combination of gross (i.e., macroscopic) and histologic (i.e., microscopic) examination of the tissue, and may involve evaluations of molecular properties of the tissue by immunohistochemistry or other laboratory tests.

Things You May Want to Know About Microscope Slide 1

Specimens of microscope slide

There are two major types of specimens submitted for surgical pathology analysis: biopsies and surgical resections.

A biopsy is a small piece of tissue removed primarily for the purposes of surgical pathology analysis, most often in order to render a definitive diagnosis. Types of biopsies include core biopsies, which are obtained through the use of large-bore needles, sometimes under the guidance of radiological techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or magnetic resonance imaging. Core biopsies, which preserve tissue architecture, should not be confused with fine-needle aspiration specimens, which are analyzed using cytopathology techniques. Incisional biopsies are obtained through diagnostic surgical procedures that remove part of a suspicious lesion, whereas excisional biopsies remove the entire lesion and are similar to therapeutic surgical resections. Excisional biopsies of skin lesions and gastrointestinal polyps are very common. The pathologist's interpretation of a biopsy is critical to establishing the diagnosis of a benign or malignant tumor, and can differentiate between different types and grades of cancer, as well as determining the activity of specific molecular pathways in the tumor. This information is important for estimating the patient's prognosis and for choosing the best treatment to administer. Biopsies are also used to diagnose diseases other than cancer, including inflammatory, infectious, or idiopathic diseases of the skin and gastrointestinal tract, to name only a few.

Surgical resection specimens are obtained by the therapeutic surgical removal of an entire diseased area or organ (and occasionally multiple organs). These procedures are often intended as definitive surgical treatment of a disease in which the diagnosis is already known or strongly suspected. However, pathological analysis of these specimens is critically important in confirming the previous diagnosis, staging the extent of malignant disease, establishing whether or not the entire diseased area was removed (a process called "determination of the surgical margin", often using frozen section), identifying the presence of unsuspected concurrent diseases, and providing information for postoperative treatment, such as adjuvant chemotherapy in the case of cancer.

In the determination of surgical margin of a surgical resection, one can use the bread loafing technique, or CCPDMA. A special type of CCPDMA is named after a general surgeon, or the Mohs surgery method.

Bibliography of microscope slide

Richard Cote, Saul Suster, Lawrence Weiss, Noel Weidner (Editor). Modern Surgical Pathology (2 Volume Set). London: W B Saunders. ISBN0-7216-7253-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link).

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Introduction to Microscope Slide
Introduction to Microscope Slide
1. Bibliography of microscope slideRichard Cote, Saul Suster, Lawrence Weiss, Noel Weidner (Editor). Modern Surgical Pathology (2 Volume Set). London: W B Saunders. ISBN0-7216-7253-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link).mw-parser-output cite.citationfont-style:inherit.mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"""""""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registrationcolor:#555.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output code.cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none;font-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorfont-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inherit------2. Function of microscope slideBefore HM Government wind-up led by minister James Brokenshire, the FSS was the market leader in the supply of forensic science services to police forces in England and Wales, as well as being a source of training, consultancy and scientific support. The FSS originally set up and maintained the UK National DNA Database, but it is now run by the National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA).The FSS suffered damage to its reputation following the failure to recover blood stains from a shoe in the murder of Damilola Taylor. Further damage occurred when the FSS failed to use the most up-to-date techniques for extracting DNA samples in cases between 2000 and 2005. This led the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) to advise all police forces in England and Wales to review cases where samples had failed to give a DNA profile.TechnologiesThe FSS's innovative and highly sensitive DNA profiling technique called LCN (low copy number) was used in convicting Antoni Imiela (the M25 rapist) and Ronald Castree (for the murder of Lesley Molseed in 1975), but was questioned during the 2007 trial of a suspect in the Omagh bombing. However, a review by the CPS found that "the CPS has not seen anything to suggest that any current problems exist with LCN. Accordingly we conclude that LCN DNA analysis provided by the FSS should remain available as potentially admissible evidence". In addition, other Police Forces around the world are reviewing cases where LCN DNA profiling resulted in the successful prosecution of suspects. Included in this are several high-profile international cases including the murder of Swedish Foreign Minister Anna Lindh by Mijailo Mijailovic and in Australia, the murder of a backpacker Peter Falconio by Bradley John Murdoch and trial of Bradley Robert Edwards for the Claremont serial killings.In later years the FSS drew on internal expertise and key international experts to become a pioneer in forensic software and technology, notably DNA interpretation, databasing, and electronic forensics.------3. Background of microscope slide24 March commemorates the day in 1882 when Dr Robert Koch astounded the scientific community by announcing to a small group of scientists at the University of Berlin's Institute of Hygiene that he had discovered the cause of tuberculosis, the TB bacillus. According to Koch's colleague, Paul Ehrlich, "At this memorable session, Koch appeared before the public with an announcement which marked a turning-point in the story of a virulent human infectious disease. In clear, simple words Koch explained the aetiology of tuberculosis with convincing force, presenting many of his microscope slides and other pieces of evidence." At the time of Koch's announcement in Berlin, TB was raging through Europe and the Americas, causing the death of one out of every seven people. Koch's discovery opened the way toward diagnosing and curing tuberculosis------4. Botanical illustrator of microscope slideA botanical illustrator is a person who paints, sketches or otherwise illustrates botanical subjects. Typical illustrations are in watercolour, but may also be in oils, ink or pencil, or a combination of these. The image may be life size or not, the scale is often shown, and may show the habit and habitat of the plant, the upper and reverse sides of leaves, and details of flowers, bud, seed and root system.Botanical illustration is sometimes used as a type for attribution of a botanical name to a taxon. The inability of botanists to conserve certain dried specimens, or restrictions on safe transport, have meant illustrations have been nominated as the type for some names. Many minute plants, which may only be viewed under a microscope, are often identified by an illustration to overcome the difficulties in using slide mounted specimens. The standards for this are by international agreement (Art 37.5 of the Vienna Code, 2006)...------5. Specimens of microscope slideThere are two major types of specimens submitted for surgical pathology analysis: biopsies and surgical resections.A biopsy is a small piece of tissue removed primarily for the purposes of surgical pathology analysis, most often in order to render a definitive diagnosis. Types of biopsies include core biopsies, which are obtained through the use of large-bore needles, sometimes under the guidance of radiological techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or magnetic resonance imaging. Core biopsies, which preserve tissue architecture, should not be confused with fine-needle aspiration specimens, which are analyzed using cytopathology techniques. Incisional biopsies are obtained through diagnostic surgical procedures that remove part of a suspicious lesion, whereas excisional biopsies remove the entire lesion and are similar to therapeutic surgical resections. Excisional biopsies of skin lesions and gastrointestinal polyps are very common. The pathologist's interpretation of a biopsy is critical to establishing the diagnosis of a benign or malignant tumor, and can differentiate between different types and grades of cancer, as well as determining the activity of specific molecular pathways in the tumor. This information is important for estimating the patient's prognosis and for choosing the best treatment to administer. Biopsies are also used to diagnose diseases other than cancer, including inflammatory, infectious, or idiopathic diseases of the skin and gastrointestinal tract, to name only a few.Surgical resection specimens are obtained by the therapeutic surgical removal of an entire diseased area or organ (and occasionally multiple organs). These procedures are often intended as definitive surgical treatment of a disease in which the diagnosis is already known or strongly suspected. However, pathological analysis of these specimens is critically important in confirming the previous diagnosis, staging the extent of malignant disease, establishing whether or not the entire diseased area was removed (a process called "determination of the surgical margin", often using frozen section), identifying the presence of unsuspected concurrent diseases, and providing information for postoperative treatment, such as adjuvant chemotherapy in the case of cancer.In the determination of surgical margin of a surgical resection, one can use the bread loafing technique, or CCPDMA. A special type of CCPDMA is named after a general surgeon, or the Mohs surgery method.------6. Structure of microscope slideThe FSS had several facilities throughout the country, and provided scene-of-crime and forensic investigation services to police forces in England and Wales, as well as to the Crown Prosecution Service, HM Revenue and Customs, HM Coroners' Service, Ministry of Defence Police, British Transport Police and worldwide forensic services.When an executive agency, its two main headquarters were at 109 Lambeth Road (A3202), London and at Priory House on Gooch Street North in Birmingham.Its headquarters were close to the A452, near to where it crosses the M42. The Police in England and Wales spend 170million on forensic science.LaboratoriesIt had seven main laboratories across England and Wales:Trident Court, nr Solihull / BirminghamPriory House BirminghamHinchingbrooke Park, HuntingdonLondon (Lambeth) after becoming an executive agency as until then it had been the Met Lab.Audby Lane, Wetherby, LeedsUsk Road, ChepstowWashington Hall, ChorleyAldermaston Laboratory, Aldermaston------7. Subspecialties of microscope slideMany pathologists seek fellowship-level training, or otherwise pursue expertise in a focused area of surgical pathology. Subspecialization is particularly prevalent in the academic setting, where pathologists may specialise in an area of diagnostic surgical pathology that is relevant to their research, but is becoming increasingly prevalent in private practice as well. Subspecialization has a number of benefits, such as allowing for increased experience and skill at interpreting challenging cases, as well as development of a closer working relationship between the pathologist and clinicians within a subspecialty area. Commonly recognized subspecialties of surgical pathology include the following:Bone pathologyCardiac pathologyCytopathology (A board-certifiable subspecialty in the U.S.)Dermatopathology (A board-certifiable subspecialty in the U.S.)Endocrine pathologyGastrointestinal pathologyGenitourinary pathologyGynecologic pathologyHematopathology (A board-certifiable subspecialty in the U.S.)Neuropathology (A board-certifiable subspecialty in the U.S. and a recognised specialty in the U.K.)Ophthalmic pathologyPediatric pathology (A board-certifiable subspecialty in the U.S. and a recognised specialty in the U.K.)Pulmonary pathologyRenal pathologySoft tissue pathologyBreast pathology
2021 06 25
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Knowledge About Microscope Slide
Knowledge About Microscope Slide
1. History of microscope slideIn 1982, on the one-hundredth anniversary of Robert Koch's presentation, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) proposed that 24 March be proclaimed an official World TB Day. This was part of a year-long centennial effort by the IUATLD and the World Health Organization under the theme "Defeat TB: Now and Forever. World TB Day was not officially recognized as an annual occurrence by WHO's World Health Assembly and the United Nations until over a decade later.In the fall of 1995, WHO and the Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Foundation (KNCV) hosted the first World TB Day advocacy planning meeting in Den Haag, Netherlands; an event they would continue co-sponsor over the next few years. In 1996, WHO, KNCV, the IUATLD and other concerned organizations joined to conduct a wide range of World TB Day activities.For World TB Day 1997, WHO held a news conference in Berlin during which WHO Director-General Hiroshi Nakajima declared that "DOTS is the biggest health breakthrough of this decade, according to lives we will be able to save." WHO's Global TB Programme Director, Dr. Arata Kochi, promised that, "Today the situation of the global TB epidemic is about to change, because we have made a breakthrough. It is the breakthrough of health management systems that makes it possible to control TB not only in wealthy countries, but in all parts of the developing world, where 95 percent of all TB cases now exist."By 1998, nearly 200 organizations conducted public outreach activities on World TB Day. During its World TB Day 1998 news conference in London, WHO for the first time identified the top twenty-two countries with the world's highest TB burden. The next year, over 60 key TB advocates from 18 countries attended the three-day WHO/KNCV planning meeting for World TB Day 1999.U.S. President Bill Clinton marked World TB Day 2000 by administering the WHO-recommended Directly Observed Therapy, Short-Course (DOTS) treatment to patients at the Mahavir Hospital in Hyderabad, India. According to Clinton, "These are human tragedies, economic calamities, and far more than crises for you, they are crises for the world. The spread of disease is the one global problem for which . . . no nation is immune."In Canada, the National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health noted on World TB Day 2014 that 64% of TB cases reported nationally were among foreign-born individuals and 23% among Aboriginal people, highlighting TB as a key area of concern about health equity.Today the Stop TB Partnership, a network of organizations and countries fighting TB (the IUATLD is a member and WHO houses the Stop TB Partnership secretariat in Geneva), organizes the Day to highlight the scope of the disease and how to prevent and cure it.------2. Biography of microscope slideEarly lifeTweedy John Todd was born in 1789 in Berwick-Upon-Tweed where his father was a borough treasurer. Todd studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, but did not complete his degree, joining the Royal Navy instead in 1809.Navy careerTodd began his career as a Royal Navy surgeon working in the Royal Naval Hospital at Plymouth. He later sailed to the East Indies and the Cape of Good Hope and was appointed surgeon on the flagship of Sir Robert Stopford aged only 23. While at the Cape of Good Hope aboard HMSLion, he performed experiments on the electric ray (Torpedo sp), which were published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.Todd retired from the navy in 1816, and lived in Italy for 6 or 7 years. Following this he returned to his studies and completed two medical degrees, first at the University of Montpellier, then at the University of Aberdeen before ultimately settling in Brighton in 1829, where he developed a medical practice.Scientific WorkWhile studying and then working as a physician in Brighton, Todd continued to publish papers on natural history, including work on fireflies in "The Luminous Power of Some of the Lampyrides" in 1827. In 1831 wrote "The Book of Analysis. A New Method of Experience", in order to encourage physicians and scientists to apply the Baconian method of inductive reasoning to medicine and the other natural sciences.Todd began experiments on healing using newts at the British Naval base in Naples, and continued when he moved to Brighton. He conducted a series of experiments on the newts and other animals such as worms to study the processes of healing and regeneration of wounds and amputated body parts. These were the first experiments that proved that nerves have a role in healing, and that amphibian limbs cannot regenerate if the nerves are cut. He observed the healing process microscopically and collaborated with histologist Charles Ager to produce over 3,000 microscope slides to illustrate his findings. These slides are amongst the earliest surviving examples of the use of Canada balsam as a mountant.Todd's research was not well known in the second half of the 19th century, but was the basis of many studies in the early 20th century, and more recently the importance of Todd's work has been acknowledged by medical historians.Todd died from Tuberculosis on 4 August 1840, in Hurst, Sussex. He was aged 50 or 51. After his death his large collection of microscope slides came to the attention of Richard Owen, who was then the conservator of the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons in London, but would later become the first director of the Natural History Museum. Owen was impressed by the quality of the slides and in 1841 he purchased 1,500 of them for 150 to use in the teaching of surgeons. The slides are considered to be important in the history of medicine, histology and microscopy and they remain in the College's collection today.------3. Function of microscope slideBefore HM Government wind-up led by minister James Brokenshire, the FSS was the market leader in the supply of forensic science services to police forces in England and Wales, as well as being a source of training, consultancy and scientific support. The FSS originally set up and maintained the UK National DNA Database, but it is now run by the National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA).The FSS suffered damage to its reputation following the failure to recover blood stains from a shoe in the murder of Damilola Taylor. Further damage occurred when the FSS failed to use the most up-to-date techniques for extracting DNA samples in cases between 2000 and 2005. This led the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) to advise all police forces in England and Wales to review cases where samples had failed to give a DNA profile.TechnologiesThe FSS's innovative and highly sensitive DNA profiling technique called LCN (low copy number) was used in convicting Antoni Imiela (the M25 rapist) and Ronald Castree (for the murder of Lesley Molseed in 1975), but was questioned during the 2007 trial of a suspect in the Omagh bombing. However, a review by the CPS found that "the CPS has not seen anything to suggest that any current problems exist with LCN. Accordingly we conclude that LCN DNA analysis provided by the FSS should remain available as potentially admissible evidence". In addition, other Police Forces around the world are reviewing cases where LCN DNA profiling resulted in the successful prosecution of suspects. Included in this are several high-profile international cases including the murder of Swedish Foreign Minister Anna Lindh by Mijailo Mijailovic and in Australia, the murder of a backpacker Peter Falconio by Bradley John Murdoch and trial of Bradley Robert Edwards for the Claremont serial killings.In later years the FSS drew on internal expertise and key international experts to become a pioneer in forensic software and technology, notably DNA interpretation, databasing, and electronic forensics.------4. Bibliography of microscope slideRichard Cote, Saul Suster, Lawrence Weiss, Noel Weidner (Editor). Modern Surgical Pathology (2 Volume Set). London: W B Saunders. ISBN0-7216-7253-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link).mw-parser-output cite.citationfont-style:inherit.mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"""""""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registrationcolor:#555.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output code.cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none;font-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorfont-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inherit------5. Specimens of microscope slideThere are two major types of specimens submitted for surgical pathology analysis: biopsies and surgical resections.A biopsy is a small piece of tissue removed primarily for the purposes of surgical pathology analysis, most often in order to render a definitive diagnosis. Types of biopsies include core biopsies, which are obtained through the use of large-bore needles, sometimes under the guidance of radiological techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or magnetic resonance imaging. Core biopsies, which preserve tissue architecture, should not be confused with fine-needle aspiration specimens, which are analyzed using cytopathology techniques. Incisional biopsies are obtained through diagnostic surgical procedures that remove part of a suspicious lesion, whereas excisional biopsies remove the entire lesion and are similar to therapeutic surgical resections. Excisional biopsies of skin lesions and gastrointestinal polyps are very common. The pathologist's interpretation of a biopsy is critical to establishing the diagnosis of a benign or malignant tumor, and can differentiate between different types and grades of cancer, as well as determining the activity of specific molecular pathways in the tumor. This information is important for estimating the patient's prognosis and for choosing the best treatment to administer. Biopsies are also used to diagnose diseases other than cancer, including inflammatory, infectious, or idiopathic diseases of the skin and gastrointestinal tract, to name only a few.Surgical resection specimens are obtained by the therapeutic surgical removal of an entire diseased area or organ (and occasionally multiple organs). These procedures are often intended as definitive surgical treatment of a disease in which the diagnosis is already known or strongly suspected. However, pathological analysis of these specimens is critically important in confirming the previous diagnosis, staging the extent of malignant disease, establishing whether or not the entire diseased area was removed (a process called "determination of the surgical margin", often using frozen section), identifying the presence of unsuspected concurrent diseases, and providing information for postoperative treatment, such as adjuvant chemotherapy in the case of cancer.In the determination of surgical margin of a surgical resection, one can use the bread loafing technique, or CCPDMA. A special type of CCPDMA is named after a general surgeon, or the Mohs surgery method.
2021 06 25
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Discovery of a Female Cat with Testicles Among Weirdest Pet Claims
Discovery of a Female Cat with Testicles Among Weirdest Pet Claims
A North Shore pet owner got the shock of her life to learn her female cat also had testicles. Along with the discovery of a hermaphrodite cat, other owners have been left perplexed after discovering their pets had consumed anything from a roll of dental floss, compact mirror, blanket, sewing needle to a chicken skewer. These discoveries were among the weirdest PetCare claims received by Southern Cross last year. Lisa Newlands adopted her domestic long haired cat Cameo in 2014 with the reassurance she had been spayed. But at the end of last year, Newlands became suspicious about whether it the standard neutering had worked when her usually feisty cat started befriending a stray male. After Cameo became really sick with a high temperature and stopped eating for the second time in two months, an ultrasound revealed she had a large mass in her stomach area. The ginger cat underwent surgery and for the first time in her vet's 13 year career, she discovered two cancerous testicles in the female feline. Cancerous testicles emit oestrogen, which was why the tom cat was hanging around. "The vet was just bamboozled. She had never seen anything like this in her entire career," Newlands said. Cameo's total vet bill was $2531, but Newlands said fortunately $2013 was covered by pet insurance. Newlands estimated Cameo had racked up almost $10,000 in vet bills since she had owned her because she was notorious for getting in fights with other cats and was grateful most of it had been covered by her pet insurance. Another pet owner also claimed on a hefty $8000 vet bill after their german shepherd cut its leg on a metal shoe rack as it tried to escape from two cats. The traumatic incident resulted in the dog having to undergo two surgeries and receive post operative care. In another case, a labrador retriever went under the knife to remove pieces of a blanket it had eaten from its stomach at a cost of $6000. Another owner commented that they were amazed that the chicken skewer eaten by their miniature poodle came out whole after being endoscopically removed. And a hungry beagle's desire to snaffle up a tasty fruit cake also backfired on it after the raisins caused it to have renal failure. The wee beagle had it's kidneys flushed at the vet. But the list of weird claims gets crazier after a french bulldog ate a whole roll dental floss it had found in a visitor's bag and a Shetland sheepdog had to be treated for munching on dish cloths on two separate occasions. The mischievous mutt managed to escape surgery and was given drugs to help it either poo or vomit the rags out. And it wasn't just playful pooches causing their owners angst, a domestic long haired cat also required surgery to remove a sewing needle it had swallowed and devon rex cat had 46 hair ties surgically removed from its stomach. Both treatments cost their owners more than $2000 each. Southern Cross Pet Insurance general manager Anthony McPhail said everyday, unexpected accidents could end up costing pet owners a lot of money at the veterinary clinic. McPhail said while most of the claims processed were for typical illnesses and routine checks, the ones where pets had managed to eat something they shouldn't have still surprised them. He said the stories could be amusing, but still caused quite a lot of stress to the pet and both its owner and their wallet. "We recommend owners prepare for those unexpected veterinary visits by either setting some money aside or considering pet insurance," McPhail said.
2021 07 27
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Citing Privacy Concerns, U.S. Panel Urges End to Secret DNA Testing
Citing Privacy Concerns, U.S. Panel Urges End to Secret DNA Testing
NEW YORK (Reuters) - They're called discreet DNA samples, and the Elk Grove, California, genetic-testing company easyDNA says it can handle many kinds, from toothpicks to tampons. Blood stains from bandages and tampons? Ship them in a paper envelope for paternity, ancestry or health testing. EasyDNA also welcomes cigarette butts (two to four), dental floss ("do not touch the floss with your fingers"), razor clippings, gum, toothpicks, licked stamps and used tissues if the more standard cheek swab or tube of saliva isn't obtainable. If the availability of such services seems like an invitation to mischief or worse - imagine a discarded tissue from a prospective employee being tested to determine whether she's at risk for an expensive disease, for instance - the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues agrees. On Thursday it released a report on privacy concerns triggered by the advent of whole genome sequencing, determining someone's complete DNA make-up. Although sequencing "holds enormous promise for human health and medicine," commission chairwoman Amy Gutmann told reporters on Wednesday, there is a "potential for misuse of this very personal data." "In many states someone can pick up your discarded coffee cup and send it for (DNA) testing," said Gutmann, who is the president of the University of Pennsylvania. "It's not a fantasy to think about how, without baseline privacy protection, people could use this in a way that would be really detrimental," such as by denying someone with a gene that raises their risk of Alzheimer's disease long-term care insurance, or to jack up life insurance premiums for someone with an elevated genetic risk of a deadly cancer that strikes people in middle age. "Those who are willing to share some of the most intimate information about themselves for the sake of medical progress should be assured appropriate confidentiality, for example, about any discovered genetic variations that link to increased likelihood of certain diseases, such as Alzheimer's, diabetes, heart disease and schizophrenia," Gutmann said. The commission took on the issue because whole genome sequencing is poised to become part of mainstream medical care, especially by personalizing medical treatments based on a patient's DNA. That has been driven in large part by dramatic cost reductions, from $2.5 billion per genome in the Human Genome Project of the 1990s and early 2000s to $1,000 soon. Several companies, including Illumina Inc. and Life Technology's Ion Torrent division, sell machines that can sequence a genome for a few hundred dollars, but that does not include the analysis to figure out what the string of 3 billion DNA "letters" means. A three-year-old federal law prohibits discrimination in employment or health insurance based on someone's genetic information but does not address other potential misuses of the data. Without such privacy protection, said Gutmann, people may be reluctant to participate in genetic studies that do whole genome sequencing, for fear their genetic data will not be secure and could be used against them. Recommendations from such panels are not binding but have been used as the basis for policy and legislation. One scenario the panel offers is a "contentious spouse" secretly having a DNA sample sequenced and using it in a custody battle "as evidence of unfitness to parent," perhaps because the DNA showed a genetic risk for mental illness or alcoholism. There are no federal laws against that. Or, the panel said, DNA information might be posted in a social networking site "by a malicious stranger or acquaintance," possibly hurting someone's "chance of finding a spouse, achieving standing in a community, or pursuing a desired career path." The bioethics panel recommends a dozen forms of privacy protection, including that "surreptitious commercial testing" be banned: No gene sequencing or other genetic testing should be permitted without consent from the person the DNA came from, it said. About 25 states currently allow such DNA testing. Critics of the lack of genetic privacy thought greater urgency was needed. "The report lays out a lot of important best practices and does endorse further state and federal regulations, but it doesn't offer a timeline," said Jeremy Gruber, president of the Council for Responsible Genetics, a private group that monitors genetic issues. "What will inevitably happen is whole genome sequencing will enter greater use and we won't have proper regulations to insure privacy." A bill introduced in California, home to many DNA testing companies, by state Senator Alex Padilla would ban surreptitious testing, requiring written authorization from the person the genetic sample was taken from. It is not clear how many labs are willing to analyze DNA without that authorization. In practice, well-known genetic testing companies such as privately held 23andMe test only saliva samples that are too large to acquire surreptitiously, such as from a drinking glass or licked stamp. "A person would really know that they are spitting into a tube," said 23andMe spokeswoman Jane Rubinstein. The full report from the presidential commission is at www.bioethics.gov.
2021 07 28
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How to Cut Corn Off the Cob Easily, Quickly, & Safely
How to Cut Corn Off the Cob Easily, Quickly, & Safely
We've all been there: we're enjoying a nice cob of corn, happily covering our face in butter and salt, when suddenly we realize that there's a thread of corn silk stuck in our teeth. We try to dislodge it with our tongue; no luck. We pick around with our fingers; still no luck. That silk is staying there until you return home to your toothbrush and dental floss. And if you think that corn silk is bad for most people, try having braces!Cutting the kernels off corn on the cob not only helps this problem, but also makes corn a lot easier to cook with.There is a problem, of course. I'd like to think I have above-average knife skills, and yet I'm completely scared to try and cut kernels off corn on the cob. There's no way to balance the oblong cob, and you have to cut straight down. To add insult to injury, the kernels corn go flying everywhere; it's nearly impossible to cut them in a neat and orderly manner. But worry not: there are some surprisingly easy (and safe!) ways to quickly and neatly cut corn off the cob.Use a Bundt or Angel Food Cake PanI only recently found out about this (big thanks to Saveur's amazing video channel), but it's now one of my favorite food hacks. Place one end of the cob in the middle of the pan, which will keep the corn stable while you cut down. Then, as you cut the ears off of the cob, they'll collect in the pan instead of scattering everywhere.Construct a Makeshift Bundt Cake PanIf you don't have a bundt or angel food cake pan, you can make your own version. Start with a cake pan, pie dish, or shallow bowl. Then add any stable item that can hold one end of the corn, such as a narrow cup or a shot glass. (My personal favorite is a toilet paper cardboard tube, but please be careful if you try this: these tubes are remarkably flimsy, so if you apply too much pressure they will collapse while you're cutting.) Then proceed just as you would with a bundt or angel food cake pan, until you have a bowl of perfectly cut corn.Cut the Corn in HalfThis is the quickest way to get the kernels off of the cob, but you want to avoid it unless you have a nice knife and are comfortable using it. Start by cutting the corn in half, which is harder than it looks: the core of the cob is extremely hard, and the corn will want to roll while you're trying to cut. So above all, be careful!Now that the corn is in half, each piece has a flat side, making it easier and safer to balance the cob while you cut it. And with each piece half the size of a full cob of corn, there's less mess when you cut the ears off.Then again, if you're hell-bent on keeping the corn on the cob, but still want to get rid of the strings of silk, you can always microwave it.Get More Food-Cutting HacksSometimes unflavored dental floss is better at cutting certain foods than your knife-seriously! And if cutting tomatoes befuddles you, be sure to read our indispensable guide on how to do it right. As for mangoes, turns out you need to bring a drinking glass in order to cut them the right way.
2021 07 28
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How to Make Jewelry From Seeds
How to Make Jewelry From Seeds
Using natural objects to decorate the human body has been practiced for thousands of years. In this day and age, going green with your jewelry can be fashionable in more ways than one. Grow and dry your own seeds, or find them at grocery stores, garden centers or in your backyard. Making jewelry can help satisfy your creative nature, and if you create patterns and designs that appeal to other people, you could market your jewelry and add some green to your pocketbook by utilizing simple materials provided by Mother Nature.Dried seedsCotton cloth1-inch-thick boardDrill1/16-inch drill bitSmall pliersTape measureScissorsRed marker penNeedlePlain dental flossMasking tapePrepare your seeds by sorting through them to eliminate debris and remove broken or misshapen seeds. Wash any seeds that are dirty, and dry them thoroughly. Rub the seeds with a cotton cloth to make them shine.Place a 1-inch-thick board on your work area, and place a seed on the board. Hold the seed securely with pliers. Drill a hole in the seed with a cordless drill with a 1/16-inch drill bit. so this with all your necklace seeds. Drill holes in all your seeds.Measure 32 inches of dental floss with the tape measure, and cut the floss, using scissors. Use a red marker to mark a spot 2 inches from one end of the dental floss. Mark that spot with a red marker. Mark a spot 2 inches from the other end of the dental floss. Wrap a small piece of masking tape around that end.Thread the end of your dental floss through the tiny opening at the top of your self-threading needle, above the eye. Pull the floss through the eye of your needle until you reach the spot marked with masking tape.Thread one seed at a time onto the floss by pushing the needle through the hole you've drilled in the seed. Pull the first seed to the spot marked with the masking tape. Keep adding seeds until you've filled the length of floss between the red mark and masking tape.Remove the masking tape from the end of the floss, and knot the ends of floss together securely. Clip the loose ends of floss close to the knot with scissors to finish your necklace.Drill holes in the center of each seed or at a point that will allow the seed to be threaded so it will lie at the angle of your choosing. Thread all of one kind of seed onto your floss, or alternate seeds of different shapes and sizes. Store pieces of finished jewelry in tightly covered glass jars.Use caution when using a drill. Place seed jewelry in a deep freeze for a couple of weeks, at least once a year, to kill any insects that may infest the seeds. Never eat seeds that you use to make jewelry.
2021 07 28
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Find the Right and Trustworthy Medical Equipment Suppliers in India
Find the Right and Trustworthy Medical Equipment Suppliers in India
No doubt, healthcare services need a diverse range of products and equipment. In order to fulfill your needs, there are equipment suppliers available who can give you a wide range of medical products and types of equipment. Meanwhile, it is essential to consider specific essentials before you look down for a supplier of medical items.Quality Medical Equipment ImportantThe good medical laboratories in India need some collection of good quality medical equipment. Medical equipment suppliers in India offer types of equipment that technicians would use for the purpose of the analysis of electrolytes and blood gas, immunology, chemistry, microbiology, hematology, urinalysis, coagulation, additionally to a comprehensive collection of ancillary laboratory tools, reagents, and controls. If you wish to have some good quality of products for the medical laboratories, it's especially significant to select a trustworthy medical equipment supplier. The suppliers generally have an account with a wide collection of regular laboratory products.Choose a Reliable dealer or SupplierSelecting a reliable supplier or dealer medical equipment will make sure that the laboratories are completely equipped with a diverse inventory of top quality products from the top brands. Not to add to the fact that all the analytical process will out efficiently and correctly.Apart from that, the recognized suppliers usually give post-sales services and proficient refurbish and packages of the repair that will make sure that all the items supplied are functioning in the right way. They also give the spare parts and delicates for the majority of the products.Medical equipment online storeNot just physical stores, but the online store is also ready to serve your needs for the medical types of equipment. Look for trustworthy suppliers that can give you amazing in-house services which include repairs when required, after-sales assistance and visits for material service.Contact Details:-Website : No: 9247871397 / 0891-2521379EmailId : indianmedicalmart@gmail.comAdrress : Door No: 14-11-2, Ramajogipeta, Maharanipeta,Back Side of Bharathi Hospital, Visakhapatnam - 530002, Andhra Pradesh, India·RELATED QUESTIONWhat are the key performance indicators for a surgical instrument sales company?Would depend on the company selling, but most likely a company selling such equipment would need to track:Number of units soldRevenue generated per month or quarterMRR (monthly recurring revenues)Tracking follow-up dates for re-stocksProduct rotation tracking (if items have an expiry date)Quality assurance (both stock and transport)Invoicing & payment trackingAnd of course, all of the relevant data of their clients.Perhaps worth contacting a hospital administrator and see if they can help you directly. Or indeed, another medical equipment supply company.We have several medical equipment suppliers using our software and each have different metrics and KPI's.Hope this helps!
2021 07 28
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What to Give Up for Lent? Smoking? Cursing? How About ...
What to Give Up for Lent? Smoking? Cursing? How About ...
LONDON - For Lent, many Christians give up indulgences like tobacco, alcohol or sweets, or transgressions like lying and swearing. And for Anglicans, don't forget synthetic fabrics, wet wipes, and those little boxes that hold dental floss.The Church of England has asked people to add a new culprit to the list of ills they forsake for the six weeks of penance that begin on Ash Wednesday: plastics. Specifically, the church wants people to avoid the plastic consumer products and packaging that have become a major environmental problem, polluting oceans and rivers, fouling beaches, killing wildlife and clogging landfills."I think it might well be a first for us, to have an entire Lent program on an environmental issue, but it is very much an integral part of what the church is about," said Ruth Knight, the Church of England's environmental policy officer. In fact, environmental stewardship "to safeguard the integrity of creation" is one of the five "marks of mission" the church lists in describing its purpose.The church's "Lent Plastic Challenge" arrives on a wave of anti-plastic sentiment and legislation in Britain and across Europe, as more people conclude that the first element of the motto "reduce, reuse, recycle" should take precedence. In December, the European Union announced binding waste-reduction targets for member nations, with particular emphasis on plastics.Last month, a ban on plastic microbeads in cosmetic products took effect in Britain, and Prime Minister Theresa May's government committed Britain to a 25-year environmental plan that includes eliminating most plastic waste. Several big cafe and restaurant chains have recently done away with plastic straws, or promised to do so, and the government of Scotland has said it will ban them by the end of next year.[Read how a 9-year-old boy's statistic shaped a debate on straws here.]In Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, stores must charge 5 pence for each single-use shopping bag, whether paper or plastic, and the same charge applies in England for plastic bags at larger retailers. The measure has sharply reduced plastic bag use, and lawmakers say they want to impose charging more widely in England.Last fall, a BBC documentary series on the oceans, Blue Planet II, which dealt extensively with environmental dangers, including from plastics, was the most-viewed program in Britain.The Church of England has created a calendar for a plastics-free Lent, each day bearing either an environmentally-themed Bible verse or a suggestion on how to avoid buying plastics.Along with some of the easier-to-follow suggestions, like buying clothes made of natural fibers or taking reusable bags to the grocery store, are others that might require more effort, like finding dental floss that does not come in a plastic box, or using "a bamboo toothbrush or a toothbrush with recyclable heads.""Yeah, some of them are more difficult than others," Ms. Knight said. "It's definitely not a commandment to do all of them, it's encouragement to do as much as you can."A large part of the world's plastic waste - estimates range from five million to 13 million tons per year - ends up in the oceans. Circulating currents have created immense rotating patches of waste, mostly plastic, in subtropical regions.Wave action and sunlight break floating plastics down in smaller pieces, but some of them are very slow to degrade chemically, and are toxic. Animals eat bits of plastic, with ill effects on them - and further up the food chain, all the way to humans - that are only beginning to be understood.
2021 07 28
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