The Evolution of the 3D Anatomy Education Virtual Anatomy Table in China

Chinese medical students have been studying gross anatomy since the start of spring semester 2020. In response to COVID-19, social dissociation measures have prevented medical students around the world from entering lecture halls and practical laboratories by 2020. A national survey was analyzed in the current study to determine how medical school anatomy educators in the first few months reacted to this abrupt transition.

The Evolution of the 3D Anatomy Education Virtual Anatomy Table in China 1

Virtual techniques offer a viable way to learn this refreshing skill (Ehrlich et al., 2020). From this perspective, the pandemic crisis could accelerate the transition from the traditional doctrine of crude anatomy to virtual platforms. Only time will tell whether this transition will include anatomy lessons or replace traditional methods (Ravi, 2020).

By contrast, the integration of virtuality and reality can achieve more ideal learning effects. The integration of traditional anatomical experiments and lessons with advanced digital technologies allows students to compare virtuality and reality during the learning process. When teachers explain the structure of the human body, this integration into the classroom facilitates students "understanding.

Compared to the traditional model of teaching image diagnostics, electronic film reading and library teaching, this method saves time, space, manpower and material resources. For students, the simple structure and elegant look of the high-definition images terminals will be conducive to students comprehensive observation and comparison.

The introduction of humanistic end-of-life care between doctors and patients, which is discussed in a cadaver laboratory, reduces students "fears and serves as preparation for their clinical duties and promotes psychosocial development3,15,57,58. Such discussions, triggered by virtual dissection with 3D software, reflect the disappointment of at least one student in the 3D group.

The Evolution of the 3D Anatomy Education Virtual Anatomy Table in China 2

A recent meta-analysis comparing laboratory approaches in physiotherapy and veterinary medicine found no differences between section, prosection, plastic models and digital media, but the above additional educational goals in the context of short-term knowledge gain should be taken into account, as they cannot be met without the use of certain modalities such as plastic models and 3D software. Advocates of animal-free teaching argue that alternatives to animal preparation can benefit educators by increasing teaching efficiency, lowering tuition costs, giving teachers more opportunities to adapt, and repeating skills during classroom assignments. Hundreds of institutions have introduced the Anatomage Table as an anatomical and physiological teaching tool.

Multicolor physical 3D models have great potential to improve the anatomic learning experience for students and physicians with reported use in the training of medical students' upper limb [4]. In the case of macro-structures, the colour-coordinated tissue anatomy in practice creates a more lifelike and convincing model. In this case, this freeware uses procedurally generated models with a full spectrum of color-coded sub-structural layers to maximize the supposed educational benefits of learning specific structures.

However, UV mapping is not suitable for colors in biomedical data-driven models, as they have a high number of vertices and complex structures, making unpacking and flattening in the 2D plane difficult. For example, students cannot imagine a mirror model in a 2D image when the left femur model is presented. The ability to show a right-left anatomy with color enhancement reduces confusion.

Transparent treatment, screening, hiding and other surgical methods as well as shapes, branches, distributions and structures are shown to help students understand the correlation between anatomical structures, organs, channels and lesions. When the students observe pathological changes, the computer can assess which pipelines need to be dismantled and which need to be maintained by comparing them with the actual surgery and postoperative review in order to deepen understanding of the operation. Students can improve their ability to understand 2D images observed in the MRI by combining them with the 3D images, stimulating initiative and learning, improving learning efficiency and achieving positive feedback effects [9].

Students in the control group received e-mail links to the online learning resources for functional neuroanatomy, while the experimental group received links to UCC e-learning tools developed in the study (Figure 2). The groups of students were given additional links (1) to e-textbooks on neuroatomy available in the institute's library and (2) to e-resources with instructions on access to the respective learning resources and outcomes. The report finds that the confidence, satisfaction and ability of students to access and communicate information were significantly higher after participating in the alternative activities than before the section.

Three separate studies from universities in the United States showed that students who modelled body systems with clay were better at identifying the components of human anatomy than their peers who performed animal specimens. The section was carried out in a morgue or anatomy laboratory. Another study found that the students preferred to model animals with clay prior to preparation and performed better than their cohort who prepared the animal.

However, Ziauddin University in Karachi has introduced a virtual 3D dissection table in its new digital anatomy laboratory in Clifton. It has been used for years as a learning tool for university students. Learning is not just immersive, as is the case with 3D dissection tables, according to the professor.

The aim of this study was to identify and investigate three-dimensional (3D) anatomy models, their effects on learning and quality of research in this area. Our study was conducted in the Department of Research and Development of Imaging Anatomy of the Urdia EA 4465 Clinical Digital Anatomy Laboratory at the University of Paris Descartes. Our work consisted in the recognition of anatomical structures, which are typical for cervical vertebral sections, and in laborious work on contours in order to obtain as realistic models as possible.

Another advantage of our work is that the entire contour work and the entire 3D vector reconstruction of the typical cervical vertebra were carried out with real body sections. This led to a significant increase in the precision and reliability of the results presented here.

Based on image segmentation the digital serial section data of the human body reconstructed 3D structure of the male section (2110 layers with an accuracy of 0.1mm to 1mm) and of the female (3640 layers with an accuracy of between 0.0mm and 0.5 mm) and finally 5,000 anatomical 3D structures.

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