My Wife Is 23 Weeks Pregnant and Had an Ultrasound Scan Today.Some Questions?

Trust the professionals, you do not want to get all nervous about the answers you may get from someone who knows nothing their talking about. If the doctor did not say anything regarding the babies health i am sure he/she is fine. Everything from what i have researched is in the normal range. Internal os which is the opening of the cervix inside the uterine cavity. Not to do with the baby

My Wife Is 23 Weeks Pregnant and Had an Ultrasound Scan Today.Some Questions? 1

1. What can they tell from a 2nd ultrasound scan?

From doing the ultrasound, and they said that everything is fine, I would not worry, and trust in them that everything is fine and that baby is healthy, if you want to find out about Downs Syndrome or Spina Bifida, then they would have to do an amnio to find out, they would have to get fluid samples from the Amnio Sac that is surrounding the baby to determine weather the baby has Downs Syndrome or Spina Bifida

2. 15 Week Ultrasound Scan Picture Gender / Sex - Boy or Girl?

Too early to tell unfortunately. I would guess girl, though you can not really see much. Go with your mommy instinct. I got a wrong reading too early for a girl and it turned out to be a boy. Mommy instinct always said boy

My Wife Is 23 Weeks Pregnant and Had an Ultrasound Scan Today.Some Questions? 2

3. How accurate is an ultrasound scan for determining number of pups expected at 7.5 weeks (53days) pregnant?

Ultrasounds are really only good for confirming a pregnancy. It is extremely hard to get an accurate count of puppies with an ultrasound. If you are just wanting to know how many, you would get the most accurate count by waiting a few more days and then having her xrayed. The count still may be off, but it is much more accurate than an ultrasound. Each dog carries puppies differently. I've seen female dogs have big litters that really were not that big and females that got pretty big but only had a few puppies.

4. How do i get 4D ultrasound scan?

Insurance companies do not often cover these tests, so if you want to have one done you need to do it privately. Find a clinic that specializes in them and tell them you are going in as a private patient (which probably is the majority of the people they see anyways) and ask how much it would cost. If you can afford it (because I've heard they are a little expensive, do not get me wrong!) then you can schedule the appointment on your own. I would personally suggest that you do it when you are at least 20 weeks pregnant so that you can clearly make out the babies features and sex (since it may be the only one you get during the pregnancy, it would be best to get the most out of it!) Good luck, and congratulations!

5. can a girl be mistaken for a boy in a ultrasound scan?

i had a friend with the same but was told was a girl, gave birth to a boy. never asume till it born i say as long as healthy that all that matters

6. What does it mean that my wife's twins have different gestational ages? She is currently pregnant with twins, and on each ultrasound scan it is shown that one is a week older than the other. When I ask doctors they themselves are baffled.

It may be that one is simply larger than the other. I knew a woman who was pregnant in two uteri at the same time a few weeks apart in gestational age

7. What is the meaning of the following terms from an expecting mother's recent ultrasound scan report:?

all i know is hc is head circumfrence

8. can a girl be mistaken for a boy in a ultrasound scan?

No, While the only 100% way of knowing the gender is Amniocentesis, the image of the labia and the image of the scrotum and penis are too different looking images

9. how soon can you tell the sex of your baby with a 3d 4d ultrasound scan?

the genitals are starting to form, but not enough for you to be able to tell. you can usually be pretty sure around 16 or 18 weeks

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Deep Learning for Improved Breast Cancer Monitoring Using a Portable Ultrasound Scanner
Deep Learning for Improved Breast Cancer Monitoring Using a Portable Ultrasound Scanner
About 1 in 8 U.S. women will develop invasive breast cancer during their lifetimes. Its the second leading cause of cancer death for women in the U.S. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical imaging technique used for breast cancer screening. At Insight, I worked on a consulting project with a local start-up company that developed an automated, portable, and wearable ultrasound imaging platform allowing users to perform self-monitoring of breast health. The goal of the project is to automatically detect malignant lesions in ultrasound images. In this blog, Ill describe how this project uses segmentation to detect lesions in an image, and classification to detect whether those lesions are benign or malignant. Data pre-processingFor the segmentation task, radiologists drew contours around the lesions in 240 pairs of raw images. The regions within the contour were highlighted in the mask images (see image above). For the classification task, I had roughly balanced data for benign and malignant cases. Before using the raw data for the training, they were pre-processed as shown in the following figure.The raw images were filtered to suppress noise, then the contrast in the images was enhanced. Since the dataset was small, augmentation was performed on the images, such as horizontally flipping the image, rotation and other deformations. Finally, the images were cropped to the same size.SegmentationSince a few patients had multiple images in the dataset, the data were separated, by patient, into three parts: training (80%), validation (10%), and testing (10%).The model was a modified U-Net and trained on GPU hosted by Amazon Web Services (AWS) EC2 instances. The loss function used is illustrated in the figure below, with A representing the ground truth (manually labeled mask) and B representing the model generated mask. If the mask from the model is completely off, then the intersection/union ratio is 0. If they are completely overlapping, then the ratio is 1. The resulting image (below) shows the ground truth in blue, with the red contour generated by the model. The box plot below shows a summary of the testing results. The average intersection/union ratio is 0. 74, which means that, on average, theres 74% overlap between the target mask and our prediction output. The baseline ratio is 0.06, and is calculated by assuming the model is just randomly guessing. In this case, the intersection is half the size of the average mask size, and the union is half the size of the whole image. ClassificationWhen a radiologist reads an ultrasound image, he first identifies the lesion region in the image, then looks at both the lesion region and surrounding regions for different types of features in order to make a decision. Here, we built a model to mimic this process.The architecture of the model for classification is shown in the following figure. Since there was no mask available in the provided classification dataset, the masks were generated using the model in the previous segmentation step. Raw images were passed through convolutional layers so the model could learn a set of filters to extract features. The mask provided the region of interest and, after, it passed through convolutional layers with the same number of filters as the image branch. For each filter in the image branch, there was a corresponding filter in the mask branch. Some filters in the image branch were important in extracting features from the lesion region, while others were important in extracting features from the background region of the image. The filters in the mask branch can be trained to weight these two regions differently for features learned in the image branch. These two pieces of information were combined and fed into convolutional layers, then fully connected layers, to generate results.In order to see what the model learned after training, we fed it with a fixed mask and a blank image with white noise, as shown in the following figure. To generate an image that represented the malignant features learned, we let the model modify the blank image so that the probability of malignancy is maximized (to almost 1). The following figure shows two examples of the generated images from the model. From these images, we can observe a few things:Both the lesion region and surrounding region contribute to the classification.The lesion regions are more important, since most of the features are concentrated inside these regions. We can see that the model looked for different features for these two regions. This shows that the model indeed learned where and what to look for in the images.The results of the testing dataset are shown in the following confusion matrix. The model is optimized for recall in order to reduce the false negative. The testing accuracy of the model is 0.79 and the recall is 0.85 on test data.DiscussionIn this project, I used deep learning techniques to automatically detect lesion regions and classify the lesion, which can have both cost and time-saving benefits. Currently, patients must make appointments with ultrasound technicians and physicians, which is both time-consuming and costly. In order to reduce cost, combining the device and the mode can reduce the manual process involved. An estimation of the reduction in the manual process can provide a quantified deliverable for this project.The equation used to estimate the manual process is shown in the following:The positive class rate is the prevalence of breast cancer, which is roughly 12%. The recall can be set to 1 by adjusting the threshold of the model. Since the class rate in the training is different than the prevalence rate, the precision from the model is adjusted. The estimated percentage is about 26%, which means that combining the device and model can reduce 74% of the cost for users. ConclusionsThe deep learning model developed in this project can automatically detect lesions in the ultrasound images. By combining the model with the portable scanner, it can produce repeatable images and allow users to monitor their health changes over time, based on their own baseline, for the right diagnosis at the right time.Qin Miao was an Insight Health Data Science Fellow in 2019. He holds a PhD in bioengineering. At Insight, he built deep learning models that can automatically detect lesions in ultrasound images.Are you interested in working on high-impact projects and transitioning to a career in data? Sign up to learn more about the Insight Fellows programs and start your application today
2021 05 24
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How Early Can a Pregnancy Be Seen on an Ultrasound Scan?
How Early Can a Pregnancy Be Seen on an Ultrasound Scan?
about 6-7 weeks is the earliest you can se anything, with an internal ultrasound1. how soon can you tell the sex of your baby with a 3d 4d ultrasound scan?i think you will need to wait a bit longer. i just found out at 15wks 4 days that i am having a little boy and it was definately clear and it wasnt a 3d/4d scan either. so i would say within a month you should probably be able to find out.2. Does Ultrasound Scan result determine Due date?Ultrasounds are meant to be the main precise thank you to foretell a due day...yet this nevertheless is not maximum suitable. It additionally relies upon on how early your ultrasound become finished. the faster the ultrasound, the extra precise...as all toddlers start up a similar length, yet as time passes, toddlers improve at different expenditures. while you are somewhat nerve-racking approximately your length, talk on your ob/gyn and ask for yet another ultrasound. ..with 3-D US they could are looking forward to how super your toddler is on the instant time. additionally look ahead to swelling, you are gaining water weight that's an illustration of pre eclampsia3. My baby's gender??? Ultrasound scan???!!!?Hah. You said 5 weeks in the first line and I thought your ultrasound technician must be INSANE!! But now that I see it's actually 15 weeks, then I would say there's a good chance she is correct. If she got a really great view, then she probably would have been able to see the "boy parts" forming. However, 14-15 weeks is still a little too soon, so I would not go out buying pink until you get it confirmed at 18-20 weeks!.4. hi ive been told in my ultrasound scan that im expecting a baby boy.they could see the testicles and penis?i went for my 4 month check-up & my ultrasounds showed the baby's penis & testes...i saw 4 myself as well...5. My wife is 23 weeks pregnant and had an ultrasound scan today.Some questions?If there was a major immediate concern, the tech would have set you up to see somebody about it right away - so do not worry about that. I do not know about all of those specific stats, but I will tell you what I DO know. The heartbeat is fine...the norm can be from 120 to 170. 475 grams is about 1.05 lbs which is fine. Liquor means amniotic fluid, and 18 is a good number (it should be between 5 and 24). That is all I can tell you about. Your doctor will most likely go over the ultrasound results with you at some point (even when they are normal) and you can ask him/her more specific questions at that time.6. When I had my ultrasound scan the hospital policy was not to tell you the sex of the baby.?I would question whether or not you want to have your baby at a hospital like this. I have never heard of such a thing!7. What can they tell from a 2nd ultrasound scan?they test that through bloodwork....meaning the baby's. so they get amniotic fluid or cord blood...very invasive but optional8. What is the meaning of the following terms from an expecting mother's recent ultrasound scan report:?I would call the hospital or your doctor for an explanation of what you do not understand from the ultrasound report, they have the experience and the expertise to tell you what this all means9. What does it mean that my wife's twins have different gestational ages? She is currently pregnant with twins, and on each ultrasound scan it is shown that one is a week older than the other. When I ask doctors they themselves are baffled.Gestational age is age in gestational weeks determined by measures of fetus which most fetuses (or in average) develop in that week of pregnancy.It could be that one twin develops a little bit faster than the other. Or that one is concieved qnd implanted a few days after than the other. I do not know if difference in one week is significant - it does not have to mean anything particular. -> You need to ask the doctor about that, if it is anything important, and which could be the reasons.Try to relax; enjoy pregnancy with your wife.
2021 09 13
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What Is the Meaning of the Following Terms From an Expecting Mother's Recent Ultrasound Scan Report:
What Is the Meaning of the Following Terms From an Expecting Mother's Recent Ultrasound Scan Report:
FHM = FETAL HEART MOTION FM = I AM UNSURE ABOUT BPD = BI-PARIETAL DIAMETER( A MEASURE ACROSS THE BABIES HEAD) FL = FEMUR LENGTH (LENGTH OF THIGH BONE) AC = ABDOMINAL CIRCUMFERENCE (MEASUREMENT AROUND BABY'S ABDOMEN)) HC = HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE(MEASUREMENT AROUND BABY'S HEAD1. If baby is positioned at back of uterus can it be missed on ultrasound scan in the second trimester?Agree with the answers you have so far. Our "cheapie" ultrasound machine that I use on a regular basis has a maximum depth of 35cm, or a little over a foot. In most patients, with a bit of pressure, I can see everything between their belly skin and their backbone. If you look at the image in Liang-Hai Sie's answer you can see the "depth gauge" on the left side. Mom's belly skin is at the top of the image (0) and the baby goes to a depth of about 10cm. Now, that said, sometimes the positioning of the baby makes it hard to see exactly what you want to see (for example, that perfect profile of the face that moms love to see) but it's impossible to miss the whole baby2. can a girl be mistaken for a boy in a ultrasound scan?i had a friend with the same but was told was a girl, gave birth to a boy. never asume till it born i say as long as healthy that all that matters3. how soon can you tell the sex of your baby with a 3d 4d ultrasound scan?In the fifth month4. hi ive been told in my ultrasound scan that im expecting a baby boy.they could see the testicles and penis?The ultra sound is never 100% accurate and there have been mistaken identities (if you know what I mean) but most of the time they are correct. My son's "junk" was clear as day. Did you get a print out of it?5. Does Ultrasound Scan result determine Due date?due dates are just guestimates. hey can be /- 2 weeks. 1 weeks difference isnt that big of a deal6. What does it mean that my wife's twins have different gestational ages? She is currently pregnant with twins, and on each ultrasound scan it is shown that one is a week older than the other. When I ask doctors they themselves are baffled.It may be that one is simply larger than the other. I knew a woman who was pregnant in two uteri at the same time a few weeks apart in gestational age7. What can they tell from a 2nd ultrasound scan?They can not see if your baby has down syndrome or anything like that, only physical handicaps. At the 12 weeks scan they can test for down syndrome by measuring the thickness of the back of the neck, doubled with a blood test. This neck fold test can only be done between weeks 11-14 I think....but they are not accurate and can only give you an indication on how likely you are to have a down syndrome baby. If they think you are very likely they will offer you to do an amnio test, which is your option as there are some risks to the baby as they put a needle into the sack to take blood from the baby. Saying all this you are much more likely to have a healthy baby than an unhealthy one and even the foot might have just looked funny on the scan. They really can not see everything 100% accurate. They even get the sex of the baby wrong every now and then.8. First ultrasound scan yesterday, why is my baby measuring so big?Some people just have big babies! But also, some babies grow more rapidly at times than most but it usually levels out. Another explanation is the sonographer may have made a mistake. I would not be too worried about it, With my daughter the whole pregnancy they kept telling me how big she is and how she was going to be 7or 8 pounds at birth(i was told this at 38 weeks). when she was born at 39 weeks she was 5 pounds 9 ounces and boy did the ultrasound tech have a red face!
2021 09 13
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Does Ultrasound Scan Result Determine Due Date?
Does Ultrasound Scan Result Determine Due Date?
Ultrasounds are meant to be the main precise thank you to foretell a due day...yet this nonetheless is not right. It additionally relies upon on how early your ultrasound replaced into achieved. the quicker the ultrasound, the extra precise. ..as all little ones commence a similar length, yet as time passes, little ones strengthen at distinctive expenditures. in case you are somewhat aggravating approximately your length, communicate on your ob/gyn and ask for yet another ultrasound...with 3-d US they could assume how great your infant is at present time. additionally look ahead to swelling, you may properly be gaining water weight that's a demonstration of pre eclampsia1. What can they tell from a 2nd ultrasound scan?From doing the ultrasound, and they said that everything is fine, I would not worry, and trust in them that everything is fine and that baby is healthy, if you want to find out about Downs Syndrome or Spina Bifida, then they would have to do an amnio to find out, they would have to get fluid samples from the Amnio Sac that is surrounding the baby to determine weather the baby has Downs Syndrome or Spina Bifida2. My wife is 23 weeks pregnant and had an ultrasound scan today.Some questions?all i know is the heartbeat looks good! if the dr did not say anything then i would not worry. they would tell you then and there if something was off3. Heat felt on skin during ultrasound scan?Ultrasound uses sound waves rather than ionizing radiation cause by other imaging studies (and linked to cancer, etc). It is generally considered safe. And, yes, it causes the skin to elevated in temperature slightly and can induce a very mild inflammatory response. Most women would do not notice this, but some (like you) do. It might feel a bit warm, but definitely not "hot"...and is no harm to you or your baby. Not everybody in the world (i.e. medical orginazations) believe ultrasound to be completely safe, but it is currently considered safe enough to be standard of care in the U.S. because the benefits it brings FAR outweigh minimal (if any) risks (that is, for one dating ultrasound around 20 weeks). Having tons of ultrasounds during pregnancy is still probably safe, but not considered to be a very wise idea...especially if there is no medical reason for the ultrasound. But the warmth you felt is quite common and harmless. You can check out the link below, too...if you want more information... Hope this helps some...4. What is the meaning of the following terms from an expecting mother's recent ultrasound scan report:?all i know is hc is head circumfrence5. can a girl be mistaken for a boy in a ultrasound scan?No, While the only 100% way of knowing the gender is Amniocentesis, the image of the labia and the image of the scrotum and penis are too different looking images6. When I had my ultrasound scan the hospital policy was not to tell you the sex of the baby.?You do not really need to know the sex of the baby. You can just wait till you give birth. If you are preparing the name, you can just prepare a boy's name and a girl's name. :)7. How do i get 4D ultrasound scan?Insurance companies do not often cover these tests, so if you want to have one done you need to do it privately. Find a clinic that specializes in them and tell them you are going in as a private patient (which probably is the majority of the people they see anyways) and ask how much it would cost. If you can afford it (because I've heard they are a little expensive, do not get me wrong!) then you can schedule the appointment on your own. I would personally suggest that you do it when you are at least 20 weeks pregnant so that you can clearly make out the babies features and sex (since it may be the only one you get during the pregnancy, it would be best to get the most out of it!) Good luck, and congratulations!8. 6 weeks ultrasound scan only sac shown???I think you need to talk to your doctor. Your doctor should have actually mentioned something to you prior to this happening. You might not get serious answers on here. Some ppl will just say anything, even something dumb just to get points. CALL YOUR DOCTOR ASAP.
2021 09 13
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How Do I Get 4D Ultrasound Scan?
How Do I Get 4D Ultrasound Scan?
All you have to do is search for 4D ultrasound in your area on Google. Then call and make the appointment. it is not covered by insurance and you will have to pay for it, but when we did it, we paid only like $175 and we got great pictures to take home of the 3D scan (8 total) and a DVD of the live action (which is what the 4D is) and we get a discount when we go back. You may want to wait until your further along (20 wks plus) and you will drink a lot of water for 1-2weeks before hand. It's not hard to schedule and get done at all. Hope that helps!1. What can they tell from a 2nd ultrasound scan?most of the time only a quad screen or similar test can detect those, which is why i got one even though im only 192. How to convert a Voluson 4D ultrasound scan (.V00 file) to a video?Assuming you've exported a Voluson file without compression enabled (Wavelet = 'Off') and with the Volume/Raw File selected... try using this script to see if your data is in third-party DICOM format. This does not reconstruct the data into a useable format but does show if you can access the element data.3. hi ive been told in my ultrasound scan that im expecting a baby boy.they could see the testicles and penis?I had two boys, so yes, I had the same answer with the ultrasound. If they can clearly see the penis and testicles, there's not much room for discussion. Just as a really clear picture of a girls genitalia is unmistakable. That being said, those scans are not 100% accurate. Just keep an open mind. lol If its not a crystal clear shot of the genitalia, then its possible that an arm strategically placed between the legs was mistaken for male genitalia4. How accurate is an ultrasound scan for determining number of pups expected at 7.5 weeks (53days) pregnant?a few years ago we rescued a pregnant lab. she never really looked pregnant. I thought one or 2 pups. She had 9 all very healthy, beautiful pups. I would think if there was only one pup that she would barely show. most pregnancies do not become apparent to the eye before about 5-6 weeks along. It is very unusual for one to start showing at 3 1/2 weeks. I bet there are more pups than one, or she may be carrying some dead ones.5. My wife is 23 weeks pregnant and had an ultrasound scan today.Some questions?What did the dr say about these things! Why did not you ask them if you were worried. If your dr did not say they were bad, why are you asking us as if we are doctors! All look good to me!6. What is the meaning of the following terms from an expecting mother's recent ultrasound scan report:?visit this link i hope it was help you.7. Why do my 2 ultrasound scan show 2 different weeks?Slow down here and take a breath! Why would you think that a few days difference is going to make you lose anything? Its OK for your due date to vary by a few days this early on and its even OK for it to vary by up to 14 days later on. Its an average of 40 weeks with the understanding you *could* go 2 weeks early or 2 weeks later than those 40 weeks. Do not worry about your due date until you have too. You posting stressful questions such as this will do more harm to a pregnancy than being off by a few days which is common8. If baby is positioned at back of uterus can it be missed on ultrasound scan in the second trimester?No. Except in the first few weeks of pregnancy , the baby can never be missed on ultrasound . In the second trimester , no chance . The scan sees right up to the posterior end of the uterus . If in such doubt , rethink your diagnosis . Good luck !9. 6 weeks ultrasound scan only sac shown???Does not sound like a viable pregnancy but if you had the US I guess your doctor already told you this? Have you had your thyroid checked to see if it's out of whack? 14 MC's is way more than "normal", good luck. Get your thyroid checked
2021 09 13
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How Accurate Is an Ultrasound Scan for Determining Number of Pups Expected at 7.5 Weeks (53days) Pre
How Accurate Is an Ultrasound Scan for Determining Number of Pups Expected at 7.5 Weeks (53days) Pre
IF she is having a small litter you would be wise to have the x-ray done around day 58. Your vet has to measure those skulls vs the size of her pelvis, especially with a first litter. I am actually surprised that they would have opted for ultrasound at this stage.1. Heat felt on skin during ultrasound scan?Ultrasound uses sound waves rather than ionizing radiation cause by other imaging studies (and linked to cancer, etc). It is generally considered safe. And, yes, it causes the skin to elevated in temperature slightly and can induce a very mild inflammatory response. Most women would do not notice this, but some (like you) do. It might feel a bit warm, but definitely not "hot"...and is no harm to you or your baby. Not everybody in the world (i.e. medical orginazations) believe ultrasound to be completely safe, but it is currently considered safe enough to be standard of care in the U.S. because the benefits it brings FAR outweigh minimal (if any) risks (that is, for one dating ultrasound around 20 weeks). Having tons of ultrasounds during pregnancy is still probably safe, but not considered to be a very wise idea...especially if there is no medical reason for the ultrasound. But the warmth you felt is quite common and harmless. You can check out the link below, too...if you want more information... Hope this helps some...2. If baby is positioned at back of uterus can it be missed on ultrasound scan in the second trimester?No. Except in the first few weeks of pregnancy , the baby can never be missed on ultrasound . In the second trimester , no chance . The scan sees right up to the posterior end of the uterus . If in such doubt , rethink your diagnosis . Good luck !3. hi ive been told in my ultrasound scan that im expecting a baby boy.they could see the testicles and penis?i have 3 boys and with all the ultrasounds, we could clearly see both testicles and penis4. How to convert a Voluson 4D ultrasound scan (.V00 file) to a video?Assuming you've exported a Voluson file without compression enabled (Wavelet = 'Off') and with the Volume/Raw File selected... try using this script to see if your data is in third-party DICOM format. This does not reconstruct the data into a useable format but does show if you can access the element data.5. What is the meaning of the following terms from an expecting mother's recent ultrasound scan report:?I would call the hospital or your doctor for an explanation of what you do not understand from the ultrasound report, they have the experience and the expertise to tell you what this all means6. 6 weeks ultrasound scan only sac shown???Does not sound like a viable pregnancy but if you had the US I guess your doctor already told you this? Have you had your thyroid checked to see if it's out of whack? 14 MC's is way more than "normal", good luck. Get your thyroid checked7. Does Ultrasound Scan result determine Due date?yea ultrasound can determine your due date but is just an estimate and they can be actually off between a week or two from the weeks you actually are because of the measurements but you should not worry if its not more than 3 weeks less than what you are supposed to be8. can a girl be mistaken for a boy in a ultrasound scan?when my mum was pregnant with my sister the doctors thought she was a boy. oh but my mum had not been pregnant for 11 years, so i can not really help you there. : ]9. can a girl be mistaken for a boy in a ultrasound scan?yes a little girl can be mistaken for a boy, or vise versa. if there is not a clear shot of the baby between the legs. and if the baby does not want to cooperate. hopefully they did not make a mistake when i had my ultra sound, told me i was having a little girl at 30 weeks. she seemed to be cooperating at the time of the ultra sound
2021 09 13
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Deep Learning for Improved Breast Cancer Monitoring Using a Portable Ultrasound Scanner
Deep Learning for Improved Breast Cancer Monitoring Using a Portable Ultrasound Scanner
About 1 in 8 U.S. women will develop invasive breast cancer during their lifetimes. Its the second leading cause of cancer death for women in the U.S. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical imaging technique used for breast cancer screening. At Insight, I worked on a consulting project with a local start-up company that developed an automated, portable, and wearable ultrasound imaging platform allowing users to perform self-monitoring of breast health. The goal of the project is to automatically detect malignant lesions in ultrasound images. In this blog, Ill describe how this project uses segmentation to detect lesions in an image, and classification to detect whether those lesions are benign or malignant. Data pre-processingFor the segmentation task, radiologists drew contours around the lesions in 240 pairs of raw images. The regions within the contour were highlighted in the mask images (see image above). For the classification task, I had roughly balanced data for benign and malignant cases. Before using the raw data for the training, they were pre-processed as shown in the following figure.The raw images were filtered to suppress noise, then the contrast in the images was enhanced. Since the dataset was small, augmentation was performed on the images, such as horizontally flipping the image, rotation and other deformations. Finally, the images were cropped to the same size.SegmentationSince a few patients had multiple images in the dataset, the data were separated, by patient, into three parts: training (80%), validation (10%), and testing (10%).The model was a modified U-Net and trained on GPU hosted by Amazon Web Services (AWS) EC2 instances. The loss function used is illustrated in the figure below, with A representing the ground truth (manually labeled mask) and B representing the model generated mask. If the mask from the model is completely off, then the intersection/union ratio is 0. If they are completely overlapping, then the ratio is 1. The resulting image (below) shows the ground truth in blue, with the red contour generated by the model. The box plot below shows a summary of the testing results. The average intersection/union ratio is 0. 74, which means that, on average, theres 74% overlap between the target mask and our prediction output. The baseline ratio is 0.06, and is calculated by assuming the model is just randomly guessing. In this case, the intersection is half the size of the average mask size, and the union is half the size of the whole image. ClassificationWhen a radiologist reads an ultrasound image, he first identifies the lesion region in the image, then looks at both the lesion region and surrounding regions for different types of features in order to make a decision. Here, we built a model to mimic this process.The architecture of the model for classification is shown in the following figure. Since there was no mask available in the provided classification dataset, the masks were generated using the model in the previous segmentation step. Raw images were passed through convolutional layers so the model could learn a set of filters to extract features. The mask provided the region of interest and, after, it passed through convolutional layers with the same number of filters as the image branch. For each filter in the image branch, there was a corresponding filter in the mask branch. Some filters in the image branch were important in extracting features from the lesion region, while others were important in extracting features from the background region of the image. The filters in the mask branch can be trained to weight these two regions differently for features learned in the image branch. These two pieces of information were combined and fed into convolutional layers, then fully connected layers, to generate results.In order to see what the model learned after training, we fed it with a fixed mask and a blank image with white noise, as shown in the following figure. To generate an image that represented the malignant features learned, we let the model modify the blank image so that the probability of malignancy is maximized (to almost 1). The following figure shows two examples of the generated images from the model. From these images, we can observe a few things:Both the lesion region and surrounding region contribute to the classification.The lesion regions are more important, since most of the features are concentrated inside these regions. We can see that the model looked for different features for these two regions. This shows that the model indeed learned where and what to look for in the images.The results of the testing dataset are shown in the following confusion matrix. The model is optimized for recall in order to reduce the false negative. The testing accuracy of the model is 0.79 and the recall is 0.85 on test data.DiscussionIn this project, I used deep learning techniques to automatically detect lesion regions and classify the lesion, which can have both cost and time-saving benefits. Currently, patients must make appointments with ultrasound technicians and physicians, which is both time-consuming and costly. In order to reduce cost, combining the device and the mode can reduce the manual process involved. An estimation of the reduction in the manual process can provide a quantified deliverable for this project.The equation used to estimate the manual process is shown in the following:The positive class rate is the prevalence of breast cancer, which is roughly 12%. The recall can be set to 1 by adjusting the threshold of the model. Since the class rate in the training is different than the prevalence rate, the precision from the model is adjusted. The estimated percentage is about 26%, which means that combining the device and model can reduce 74% of the cost for users. ConclusionsThe deep learning model developed in this project can automatically detect lesions in the ultrasound images. By combining the model with the portable scanner, it can produce repeatable images and allow users to monitor their health changes over time, based on their own baseline, for the right diagnosis at the right time.Qin Miao was an Insight Health Data Science Fellow in 2019. He holds a PhD in bioengineering. At Insight, he built deep learning models that can automatically detect lesions in ultrasound images.Are you interested in working on high-impact projects and transitioning to a career in data? Sign up to learn more about the Insight Fellows programs and start your application today
2021 05 24
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Discovery of a Female Cat with Testicles Among Weirdest Pet Claims
Discovery of a Female Cat with Testicles Among Weirdest Pet Claims
A North Shore pet owner got the shock of her life to learn her female cat also had testicles. Along with the discovery of a hermaphrodite cat, other owners have been left perplexed after discovering their pets had consumed anything from a roll of dental floss, compact mirror, blanket, sewing needle to a chicken skewer. These discoveries were among the weirdest PetCare claims received by Southern Cross last year. Lisa Newlands adopted her domestic long haired cat Cameo in 2014 with the reassurance she had been spayed. But at the end of last year, Newlands became suspicious about whether it the standard neutering had worked when her usually feisty cat started befriending a stray male. After Cameo became really sick with a high temperature and stopped eating for the second time in two months, an ultrasound revealed she had a large mass in her stomach area. The ginger cat underwent surgery and for the first time in her vet's 13 year career, she discovered two cancerous testicles in the female feline. Cancerous testicles emit oestrogen, which was why the tom cat was hanging around. "The vet was just bamboozled. She had never seen anything like this in her entire career," Newlands said. Cameo's total vet bill was $2531, but Newlands said fortunately $2013 was covered by pet insurance. Newlands estimated Cameo had racked up almost $10,000 in vet bills since she had owned her because she was notorious for getting in fights with other cats and was grateful most of it had been covered by her pet insurance. Another pet owner also claimed on a hefty $8000 vet bill after their german shepherd cut its leg on a metal shoe rack as it tried to escape from two cats. The traumatic incident resulted in the dog having to undergo two surgeries and receive post operative care. In another case, a labrador retriever went under the knife to remove pieces of a blanket it had eaten from its stomach at a cost of $6000. Another owner commented that they were amazed that the chicken skewer eaten by their miniature poodle came out whole after being endoscopically removed. And a hungry beagle's desire to snaffle up a tasty fruit cake also backfired on it after the raisins caused it to have renal failure. The wee beagle had it's kidneys flushed at the vet. But the list of weird claims gets crazier after a french bulldog ate a whole roll dental floss it had found in a visitor's bag and a Shetland sheepdog had to be treated for munching on dish cloths on two separate occasions. The mischievous mutt managed to escape surgery and was given drugs to help it either poo or vomit the rags out. And it wasn't just playful pooches causing their owners angst, a domestic long haired cat also required surgery to remove a sewing needle it had swallowed and devon rex cat had 46 hair ties surgically removed from its stomach. Both treatments cost their owners more than $2000 each. Southern Cross Pet Insurance general manager Anthony McPhail said everyday, unexpected accidents could end up costing pet owners a lot of money at the veterinary clinic. McPhail said while most of the claims processed were for typical illnesses and routine checks, the ones where pets had managed to eat something they shouldn't have still surprised them. He said the stories could be amusing, but still caused quite a lot of stress to the pet and both its owner and their wallet. "We recommend owners prepare for those unexpected veterinary visits by either setting some money aside or considering pet insurance," McPhail said.
2021 07 27
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Citing Privacy Concerns, U.S. Panel Urges End to Secret DNA Testing
Citing Privacy Concerns, U.S. Panel Urges End to Secret DNA Testing
NEW YORK (Reuters) - They're called discreet DNA samples, and the Elk Grove, California, genetic-testing company easyDNA says it can handle many kinds, from toothpicks to tampons. Blood stains from bandages and tampons? Ship them in a paper envelope for paternity, ancestry or health testing. EasyDNA also welcomes cigarette butts (two to four), dental floss ("do not touch the floss with your fingers"), razor clippings, gum, toothpicks, licked stamps and used tissues if the more standard cheek swab or tube of saliva isn't obtainable. If the availability of such services seems like an invitation to mischief or worse - imagine a discarded tissue from a prospective employee being tested to determine whether she's at risk for an expensive disease, for instance - the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues agrees. On Thursday it released a report on privacy concerns triggered by the advent of whole genome sequencing, determining someone's complete DNA make-up. Although sequencing "holds enormous promise for human health and medicine," commission chairwoman Amy Gutmann told reporters on Wednesday, there is a "potential for misuse of this very personal data." "In many states someone can pick up your discarded coffee cup and send it for (DNA) testing," said Gutmann, who is the president of the University of Pennsylvania. "It's not a fantasy to think about how, without baseline privacy protection, people could use this in a way that would be really detrimental," such as by denying someone with a gene that raises their risk of Alzheimer's disease long-term care insurance, or to jack up life insurance premiums for someone with an elevated genetic risk of a deadly cancer that strikes people in middle age. "Those who are willing to share some of the most intimate information about themselves for the sake of medical progress should be assured appropriate confidentiality, for example, about any discovered genetic variations that link to increased likelihood of certain diseases, such as Alzheimer's, diabetes, heart disease and schizophrenia," Gutmann said. The commission took on the issue because whole genome sequencing is poised to become part of mainstream medical care, especially by personalizing medical treatments based on a patient's DNA. That has been driven in large part by dramatic cost reductions, from $2.5 billion per genome in the Human Genome Project of the 1990s and early 2000s to $1,000 soon. Several companies, including Illumina Inc. and Life Technology's Ion Torrent division, sell machines that can sequence a genome for a few hundred dollars, but that does not include the analysis to figure out what the string of 3 billion DNA "letters" means. A three-year-old federal law prohibits discrimination in employment or health insurance based on someone's genetic information but does not address other potential misuses of the data. Without such privacy protection, said Gutmann, people may be reluctant to participate in genetic studies that do whole genome sequencing, for fear their genetic data will not be secure and could be used against them. Recommendations from such panels are not binding but have been used as the basis for policy and legislation. One scenario the panel offers is a "contentious spouse" secretly having a DNA sample sequenced and using it in a custody battle "as evidence of unfitness to parent," perhaps because the DNA showed a genetic risk for mental illness or alcoholism. There are no federal laws against that. Or, the panel said, DNA information might be posted in a social networking site "by a malicious stranger or acquaintance," possibly hurting someone's "chance of finding a spouse, achieving standing in a community, or pursuing a desired career path." The bioethics panel recommends a dozen forms of privacy protection, including that "surreptitious commercial testing" be banned: No gene sequencing or other genetic testing should be permitted without consent from the person the DNA came from, it said. About 25 states currently allow such DNA testing. Critics of the lack of genetic privacy thought greater urgency was needed. "The report lays out a lot of important best practices and does endorse further state and federal regulations, but it doesn't offer a timeline," said Jeremy Gruber, president of the Council for Responsible Genetics, a private group that monitors genetic issues. "What will inevitably happen is whole genome sequencing will enter greater use and we won't have proper regulations to insure privacy." A bill introduced in California, home to many DNA testing companies, by state Senator Alex Padilla would ban surreptitious testing, requiring written authorization from the person the genetic sample was taken from. It is not clear how many labs are willing to analyze DNA without that authorization. In practice, well-known genetic testing companies such as privately held 23andMe test only saliva samples that are too large to acquire surreptitiously, such as from a drinking glass or licked stamp. "A person would really know that they are spitting into a tube," said 23andMe spokeswoman Jane Rubinstein. The full report from the presidential commission is at www.bioethics.gov.
2021 07 28
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How to Cut Corn Off the Cob Easily, Quickly, & Safely
How to Cut Corn Off the Cob Easily, Quickly, & Safely
We've all been there: we're enjoying a nice cob of corn, happily covering our face in butter and salt, when suddenly we realize that there's a thread of corn silk stuck in our teeth. We try to dislodge it with our tongue; no luck. We pick around with our fingers; still no luck. That silk is staying there until you return home to your toothbrush and dental floss. And if you think that corn silk is bad for most people, try having braces!Cutting the kernels off corn on the cob not only helps this problem, but also makes corn a lot easier to cook with.There is a problem, of course. I'd like to think I have above-average knife skills, and yet I'm completely scared to try and cut kernels off corn on the cob. There's no way to balance the oblong cob, and you have to cut straight down. To add insult to injury, the kernels corn go flying everywhere; it's nearly impossible to cut them in a neat and orderly manner. But worry not: there are some surprisingly easy (and safe!) ways to quickly and neatly cut corn off the cob.Use a Bundt or Angel Food Cake PanI only recently found out about this (big thanks to Saveur's amazing video channel), but it's now one of my favorite food hacks. Place one end of the cob in the middle of the pan, which will keep the corn stable while you cut down. Then, as you cut the ears off of the cob, they'll collect in the pan instead of scattering everywhere.Construct a Makeshift Bundt Cake PanIf you don't have a bundt or angel food cake pan, you can make your own version. Start with a cake pan, pie dish, or shallow bowl. Then add any stable item that can hold one end of the corn, such as a narrow cup or a shot glass. (My personal favorite is a toilet paper cardboard tube, but please be careful if you try this: these tubes are remarkably flimsy, so if you apply too much pressure they will collapse while you're cutting.) Then proceed just as you would with a bundt or angel food cake pan, until you have a bowl of perfectly cut corn.Cut the Corn in HalfThis is the quickest way to get the kernels off of the cob, but you want to avoid it unless you have a nice knife and are comfortable using it. Start by cutting the corn in half, which is harder than it looks: the core of the cob is extremely hard, and the corn will want to roll while you're trying to cut. So above all, be careful!Now that the corn is in half, each piece has a flat side, making it easier and safer to balance the cob while you cut it. And with each piece half the size of a full cob of corn, there's less mess when you cut the ears off.Then again, if you're hell-bent on keeping the corn on the cob, but still want to get rid of the strings of silk, you can always microwave it.Get More Food-Cutting HacksSometimes unflavored dental floss is better at cutting certain foods than your knife-seriously! And if cutting tomatoes befuddles you, be sure to read our indispensable guide on how to do it right. As for mangoes, turns out you need to bring a drinking glass in order to cut them the right way.
2021 07 28
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