Mixers and Ring Signatures

Part 2 of a series on Privacy on the BlockchainIn the second part of this series, Ill focus on financial privacy, including mixers and ring signatures. Each of these topics could warrant their own full post, so Ill stick to the high-level capabilities of each rather than diving too deep.If youre looking for privacy in cryptocurrency today, there are a few practical options, including mixing services, often called mixers or tumblers, and privacy-centric cryptocurrencies, like Monero and Zcash.

Mixers and Ring Signatures 1

Lets discuss mixers and Monero, and save Zcash for a more detailed post on zero-knowledge proofs.MixersThe basic idea behind a mixing service is nearly as old as finance itself.A group of people want to keep their financial transactions private from some observer.

To do that, they combine their funds into one pool, keeping track of who is owed what on a private ledger. Think a second set of books. When those mixed funds are spent, the origin of a each payment is obscured observers see the amount paid and the recipient, but dont know which person or persons in the group authorized the payment.

Now, there are clearly some issues with a scheme like this. Who keeps the ledger? Who can be trusted with the pooled funds?

Lets take a closer look at how Bitcoin users have dealt with these issues.Centralized servicesBitMixer was a popular mixing service. Launched in 2014, it was a fairly literal implementation of the above scheme.

Mixers and Ring Signatures 2

Users would deposit funds directly with the service. BitMixer then broke deposits into smaller pieces, mixing them with other users funds, as well as BitMixers own reserves. Users could then withdraw new outputs, unconnected on the blockchain to their original deposits.

In the middle, of course, BitMixer took a significant fee.So, who held the funds, and who kept the ledger? Both were controlled by the same centralized party a disaster waiting to happen.

Exit scams are common in Bitcoin, with a rich history of exchanges and other service operators walking away with customer deposits. Even if an operator is honest, trusting a centralized party with your financial privacy means trusting them to defend your privacy from governments, hackers, and internal threats.Refreshingly, the owner of BitMixer opted for an orderly shutdown no hacks or funny business.

In a post on BitcoinTalk, he (she? they?) explained that he was shutting down the service because he no longer believed privacy on the Bitcoin blockchain was an achievable goal.

Coming from someone who ran a mixing service for 3 years, thats a pretty strange change of opinion. As youll see, though, strong privacy on the Bitcoin blockchain is more difficult than it appears.CoinJoinA decentralized approach to mixing, called CoinJoin, was proposed by Gregory Maxwell in 2013.

Heres the idea. When user A needs to make a transaction to user B for 10 BTC, and user C needs to send user D 10 BTC, they can combine their transactions with one merged signature. Each user can publish a piece of the transaction, but neither can be spent until both pieces are put together.

When they are, both B and D are paid 10 BTC each, though its not clear which sender paid which. Using CoinJoin, theres no longer a need for a third party to hold pooled funds. And because mixing happens each transaction, theres no need for a private ledger just a service to match users who want to create joint transactions.

Enter JoinMarket, a decentralized Bitcoin mixing service using CoinJoin. JoinMarket keeps an order book, similar to an exchange. Makers market participants who add liquidity to the exchange offer to act as CoinJoin participants for a fee.

Takers, looking to mix their coins, are paired with makers, who swap bitcoins. JoinMarket is a huge improvement over centralized mixers, but there are a number of issues with the approach in practice.De-anonymizationThe MIT Technology Review recently summarized an effort by researchers at Princeton to de-anonymize Bitcoin transactions online.

They found that if a user employs 3 rounds of CoinJoin, mixing their wallet, and makes two payments to popular merchants online, the user can still be de-anonymized with 98% accuracy. Modern surveillanceHow did this happen?Since the advent of the web, the lack of a sustainable revenue model has made profiting off content creation difficult.

Content creators need a way to fund their work. And while there have been attempts to provide alternative sources of revenue, the tried and true revenue model is third-party advertising. Because so many sites are powered by ads, an incredible amount of technical talent has been devoted to improving so-called ad-tech better ad delivery, tracking, and customization.

Each step has been reasonable, but in the pursuit of better advertising, the modern web has been turned into an effective global surveillance apparatus.So how did the team from Princeton get these results? Easily.

The team applied an existing blockchain analysis technique to identify CoinJoin transactions, and another, which they call a cluster intersection attack, to combine leaked payment details from ad trackers with blockchain information, unraveling the trail of mixed funds.In the face of cookies and trackers, privacy from mixing falls apart.Does privacy have a chance?

Im an optimist. Privacy advocates are working at a disadvantage both technologically, against the ad-powered web, and increasingly socially, as the public becomes accustomed to the new normal of social media.There are a few things we can learn from this de-anonymization effort.

First, users who werent mixing coins were immediately exposed. A 2% chance at privacy is better than nothing, and as they say in the lotto, you have to play to win. Few real-world users are aware of the risks of de-anonymization, and have taken steps to mitigate the threat.

Mixers as a solution are poor because they dont work by default. Second, the reason this effort was possible is because so few people are involved in a mixers pool. If three people are involved in a CoinJoin transaction, a particular output must have originated from one of those three.

Those are good odds for a blockchain analyst. Finally, the fact that CoinJoin transactions can be easily spotted on the blockchain is worrisome. If no one uses CoinJoin but those going out of their way to attain a higher degree of privacy, theyre a great target for hackers and blockchain analysts alike.

Hiding in a crowdBetween mid-2015 and mid-2017, there were 164 million transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain. Of those, 78,697 transactions used CoinJoin.If you only take away one idea from this post, remember this privacy works best when everyone is doing it.

The obvious reason is that an ideal private transaction doesnt look private. Announcing your desire for privacy, ironically, often draws attention. The best way to ensure that no transactions receive extra attention is to make sure all transactions are private a sort of inverse privacy herd immunity.

The more private transactions, the less out-of-place a new private transaction appears. Theres another reason privacy advocates want privacy by default.Anonymity setsIn our discussion of mixing, we talked about two weaknesses to the common mixing scheme.

Who can be trusted with pooled funds, and who keeps the private ledger orchestrating the scheme. CoinJoin and other decentralized mixing methods solve the first question, and services like JoinMarket aim to address the second.Unfortunately, theres another variable neither of these address the size of the pool.

If a pool of funds is composed of 2 depositors, very little privacy is afforded. The pool is sometimes called the the privacy set, traceability set, or anonymity set. This is an important idea that will come up again and again in our discussion of privacy, and its a major flaw in many opt-in privacy schemes, including those built atop the Bitcoin network.

Too small an anonymity set, and transactions can be easily unmasked using statistical analysis. Privacy by defaultTo solve these issues, we need a cryptocurrency thats private by default. Every transaction should be private, and the anonymity set of each transaction should be as large as is feasible ideally, the set would include every user of the currency.

Monero is one such candidate cryptocurrency. Unlike many altcoins, Monero isnt a fork of Bitcoin. Instead, Monero is based on an alternative heritage, CryptoNote.

There are a number of privacy improvements in Monero over Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, but well focus on the most notable an alternative signature scheme. Ring signaturesFor the longest time, whenever I heard a discussion about signature schemes, my eyes would gloss over. Theyre presented as a dry topic, and schemes are often introduced mathematically, burying the lede.

As one of the building blocks of todays cryptocurrencies, signature schemes are incredibly important to discussions around privacy and security. They dont need to be boring, and as a user, you dont need to understand the math. Instead, we can focus on what a particular scheme claims to do, how its different from others, and the functionality it can support.

Moneros privacy stems from ring signatures, which are used to sign all transactions. Ring signatures are a type of group signature, and a cousin of threshold signatures, which well discuss later in the series.Typically, a cryptographic signature proves the authenticity and integrity of a document from a single signer.

This follows our intuitive understanding of signatures in the same way you might sign a check, uniquely identifying that you approve an expenditure. Group signatures work a bit differently. Instead of showing that a document was approved by a single signer, a group signature proves that one signer of a fixed group approved a document.

Importantly, the scheme doesnt expose which member of the group signed.This should sound similar to CoinJoin. Instead of requiring multiple participants to sign pieces of a transaction, which can then be merged, ring signatures allow anyone in a fixed group to sign a transaction.

Both offer plausible deniability which participant signed the transaction?The number of participants in a ring signature group is called the ring size. Similar to the number of participants in a CoinJoin transaction, the ring size determines the anonymity set for a signature.

A small ring size means easier de-anonymization, as the team from Princeton leveraged against CoinJoin. So, is Monero the ideal private cryptocurrency? Its certainly close.

There are still a few issues the community is working though.Users often choose a small ring size, weakening the anonymity guarantees of the network. A planned hard fork will address this issue in September, enforcing a minimum ring size.

Ring signatures obscure the linkage between sender and recipient, but they dont obscure the amount sent. RingCT, based on Gregory Maxwells Confidential Transactions, was launched on Monero in January. Confidential Transactions obscure the amount of a transaction, replacing it with a bound range.

Over 95% of Monero transactions are now protected by RingCT, which will become mandatory for all Monero transactions in September.While Monero enforces privacy by default and is a huge improvement over using a mixing service in Bitcoin, transactions still suffer from a bound anonymity set. In the next post, well discuss Zcash, a new cryptocurrency that addresses this issue, as well as zero-knowledge proofs for non-financial uses.

Thanks to Laura Wallendal, Corbin Pon, Bedeho Mender, and Brayton Williams for reviewing early drafts of this story.Learn MoreFor more information about the Keep Network:Join us on Reddit. Check out our whitepaper.

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Join our Slack. Join our Telegram. RELATED QUESTION What are some opportunities to innovate in healthcare from a technology perspective?

New Technologies and Innovations in Healthcare Industry:Over the past few decades there is a huge growth in healthcare industry. Explosion of innovations are improving the quality of life and it increasing the life expectancy. Innovations are becoming major focus to increase efficiency, improve access, lower cost, increasing the quality, etc.

Furthermore, Asia Pacific's (most) comprehensive industry platform serves the entire value chain for the medical devices market with a combined display of products and technological innovation, together with professional exchange, to serve the business, academic and scientific sectors.Chinas International Medical Equipment Fair has been keen in uniting various countries together in order to exchange innovative ideas in the health industry.The following are the equipment with technological advancement which is focused widely in the healthcare industry.

Imaging Equipment In-Vitro Diagnostic Equipment Surgery and Emergency Equipment Orthopedic Devices and Supplies Medical IT Products Electro-Medical Devices Hospital Equipment Rehabilitation Equipment and Home-care Equipment Medical Optical Equipment Medical Consumables.URL:

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Hulus Catch 22 Blends Satire and Brutality to Mixed Results
Hulus Catch 22 Blends Satire and Brutality to Mixed Results
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Design Thinking: Mixed Method Research
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Anime Series on Karl Marx Debuts to Mixed Reviews
Anime Series on Karl Marx Debuts to Mixed Reviews
Qian ZhechengA popular Chinese streaming site premiered the first two episodes of an animated series based on the life of German socialist philosopher Karl Marx on Monday to mixed reviews from viewers.Less than 24 hours after its release on Bilibili, the first installment of The Leader had received over 2.8 million views online. The seven-episode series was a collaboration between the central governments Office for the Research and Construction of Marxist Theory, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions publicity department, and a film production company based in the region to commemorate the 200th anniversary of Marxs birth, which was observed on May 5, 2018. Marxs ideas articulated in famous works such as The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital have been massively influential in China during the 20th and 21st centuries. In a ceremony honoring the philosopher in Beijing last year, Chinese President Xi Jinping called Marx the greatest thinker of modern times.Nearly 70 years after the countrys Communist Party declared the founding of the Peoples Republic of China, the German socialist revered on the mainland is being reintroduced to young Chinese through popular entertainment. Last year, the TV show Marx Got It Right was debuted by state broadcaster CCTV, while the podcast Explaining Marx to the Post-90s Generation was aired on 15 radio stations in the country.Marx is now being portrayed in early episodes of The Leader as a chiseled and charismatic protagonist, though the trailer for the shows later episodes indicates that his well-recognized bearded visage is set to appear later in the series. The 23-minute first episode introduces the young Marx, who leaves his hometown of Trier to pursue higher education in Bonn and Berlin. While it paints Marx as a bright mind, the episode also delves into his drinking habit and financial problems, as well as his romance with his future wife, Jenny von Westphalen.Though Bilibili generated buzz around the anime series with a trailer in December, the shows debut has seen mixed reviews among Chinese viewers, who have paid more attention to Marxs high cheekbones and good looks than his theories.Although their intention is good and its very educational, we dont know his philosophy in-depth, which [makes this series] a bit bizarre, one Bilibili user wrote, referring to the shows producers. But Marxs contemporaries, as portrayed in the series, would beg to differ. In a eulogy for Marx in the first episode, Friedrich Engels hails his fellow philosophers groundbreaking ideas, such as his thorough examination and critique of capitalism. Marx, for starters, is a revolutionary his illustrious name and works shall prevail always and forever, Engels says. Editor: Bibek Bhandari. (Header image: A screenshot from The Leader, a 2019 animated series about the German thinker Karl Marx that is being released on streaming site Bilibili.) RELATED QUESTION What are some opportunities to innovate in healthcare from a technology perspective? New Technologies and Innovations in Healthcare Industry:Over the past few decades there is a huge growth in healthcare industry. Explosion of innovations are improving the quality of life and it increasing the life expectancy. Innovations are becoming major focus to increase efficiency, improve access, lower cost, increasing the quality, etc. Furthermore, Asia Pacific's (most) comprehensive industry platform serves the entire value chain for the medical devices market with a combined display of products and technological innovation, together with professional exchange, to serve the business, academic and scientific sectors.Chinas International Medical Equipment Fair has been keen in uniting various countries together in order to exchange innovative ideas in the health industry.The following are the equipment with technological advancement which is focused widely in the healthcare industry. Imaging Equipment In-Vitro Diagnostic Equipment Surgery and Emergency Equipment Orthopedic Devices and Supplies Medical IT Products Electro-Medical Devices Hospital Equipment Rehabilitation Equipment and Home-care Equipment Medical Optical Equipment Medical Consumables.URL:
I Have Mixed Feelings About the Amazon Series Hunters As a Jew
I Have Mixed Feelings About the Amazon Series Hunters As a Jew
But I still highly recommend it for the entertainment value and thought-provoking moral questions.I have a lot to say about the new Amazon Prime series Hunters.First of all, it is quite entertaining. No doubt about that especially the last episode which had a few completely unexpected twists! I love shows that totally surprise you. This one did. I think Millenials, Holocaust Deniers and others who dont know much about the Holocaust (or didnt learn much about it in school) will benefit from watching this fascinating show.We binge-watched the whole series last week. It kept our attention mainly because it was unique in many ways. It was definitely campy for a Holocaust show. Wow. Did she just use the words Campy and Holocaust in the same breath? Yep.It was a campy show about the Holocaust and Jews getting their long-awaited revenge on Nazis. The show stars Al Pacino who I normally love, especially his classic Scarface. (One of my favorite movies ever!) Most of the actors were believable and did a great job here. The script was a bit far fetched but well-written and thought-provoking for Jews and non-Jews. I especially liked the young Jonah character portrayed by actor Logan Lerman. It was interesting to watch his character turn from the innocent 19-year-old kid to ruthless revenge-seeking Nazi killer. My boyfriend Bob said while we were watching, Yep. This is the Dark Vader time!Honestly, my least favorite character was Al Pacinos Meyer Offerman who seemed to mumble far too many of his lines. I felt they were vital to the storyline but were almost incoherent at times.Sorry, Pacino. This is no Scarface performance!Also, this series does trivialize the Holocaust in many ways. I was born Jewish so this is a bit of a sore spot for me. I am not a practicing or a Religious Jew but a cultural one. Still, some of the lines in this series were downright crude and verging on cringe-worthy like when the character Lonny Flash (Josh Radnor) has to use the bathroom, he says hes going to go drop some chocolate dreidels into the Dead Sea. Overkill? Uhyea. Hunters Is an Anti-Nazi Series That Finds Actual Nazis Insufficiently Shocking?This show has already been under attack by the Auschwitz Memorial Museum. The main complaint was that the show is taking too many creative liberties with the facts and not honoring the true horrors people really suffered in the Death Camps.One critic said the director played fast and loose with the historical record. No doubt!The shows creator says he didnt want to recreate specific, real acts of trauma. All the horror scenes from Auschwitz depicted are not true. According to the shows creator David Weil, they are fictionalized accounts. Arent actual Nazi atrocities terrorizing enough? Why fictionalize them?For instance, one especially horrific scene, in the second episode features a singing competition called The Star of Buchanwald, in which concentration-camp prisoners are shot dead for going out of tune or forgetting the words to a German song until one remains.That specific sadistic act didnt happen.Another horrifying torture scene was a lifesized chess game where the prisoners were pawns placed in their respective spaces when Nazis forced them to play a game and kill whoevers spot they landed on. It was an unnerving scene but it also didnt really happen. (Similar sadistic shit did happen in the Nazi regime though.)But, one critic Charles Bramesco who is Jewish wrote the article, Why I Love the Shameless, Gory, Nazi-killing Catharsis of Amazons Hunters. He said,As a Jewish writer, the flawed and controversial new show acts for me as an oddly empowering revenge fantasyEmpowering? Well, I can understand his view too. It does feel a bit cathartic (and satisfying) to see cruel sadistic Nazis eventually get what they deserve by the hands of their Jewish gun-wielding victims!The Question of ForgivenessThe question of Forgiveness when it comes to Jews and Nazis (or even forgiveness between anyone) is an interesting one to me.(I plan to write more about this woman Eva Kor soon. She is a survivor of a Nazi death camp who recently died. Her story is the opposite of this Hunters series. She not only didnt get revenge she forgave then befriended her Nazi prison guard in this fascinating documentary Forgiving Dr. Mengele from 2006. I highly recommend this. If you want realism and intrigue watch it!)Forgiving Dr. Mengele (2006) - IMDbDirected by Bob Hercules, Cheri Pugh. With Eva Mozes Kor, Sami Adwan, Dan Bar-On, Michael Berenbaum. Eva Mozes Kor, though the show Hunters is flawed and an obvious fictional account I think it is well worth watching for the important thought-provoking moral questions it brings up. These were my final takeaways and are the questions that are still in my mind after watching this series:Do Jews have to become like Nazis (and become killers) to get their satisfying revenge?Does becoming a killer yourself make you inevitably just like them? and if so is that OK because at least youve rid the world of an undisputed evil person?Does killing a Nazi feel like some type of redemption?Would turning the other cheek or forgiving these Nazis bring a Jew any satisfaction?These are all ambiguous questions.The Deeper Moral Questions of the Series Hunters If there were moral takeaways to this story to me they would be that some things are unknowable and ambiguous, which happens to be the title of the last episode in the series Eilu vs Eilu.This is an explanation of Eilu Vs Eilu from Judaismstackexchange. com. Eilu Vsa Eilu: There are certainly absolute truths in regard to things that are known or things that are fundamental principlesWhen it comes to things that are really unknowable, the best we can do is base our understanding of them on sound principles handed down to us from Sinai. We cannot know with absolute certainty ie., we cannot know the absolute truth about) what HaShem (God) wants us to do in any given situation. Certain things are easier to determine than others . Depending on the situation, and also depending on the analysis of the applicable laws, one person can reach a different conclusion than another. That is Eilu VeEilu in a nutshell.My moms' mom (my grandma Molly) is a Holocaust survivor who had a number on her arm. She never wanted to talk about any of it. She went to her grave with her secrets. Maybe she was also contemplating some of these questions.Thanks for reading.contact: Having Recurring Nazi Holocaust Dreams in ChildhoodWhat did it mean?medium. comSOURCES:Hunters Is an Anti-Nazi Series That Finds Actual Nazis Insufficiently ShockingEvery John Mulaney Sketch on This Week's Saturday Night Live, Ranked How a Classic Children's Book Got Hijacked by does "eilu v'eilu" work out with an absolute truth?"There are 70 faces to the Torah" (Bamidbar Rabbah 13:15) There's a difference between an explanation of a Torah Memorial slams Amazon's 'Hunters' over 'human chess' sceneA memorial to one of the most infamous Nazi death camps slammed an Amazon TV series this week for depicting a made-upnypost. com. RELATED QUESTION How do I Buy Medical Equipment Spares India? You can go online and search for the suppliers but there are only a few of them in India. You can check the Medical Bazzar website; they always have the latest medical equipment and spares. Other than this, they also have hospital and clinic supplies, Ayurvedic and Home care products, and various devices for therapy. There are devices for physiotherapy such as the ultrasound unit and the TENS unit, rehabilitation equipment such as abdominal support belt, and occupational therapy equipment such as the size perception square board set. They offer discounts during the season time so you should aim to buy then.How do I Buy Medical Equipment Spares India?.
Altered Carbon: the Series That Mixes Virtual Reality, Artificial Intelligence and Big Data
Altered Carbon: the Series That Mixes Virtual Reality, Artificial Intelligence and Big Data
Leia este artigo em portugusAltered Carbon is one of the most innovative television series.With a good dose of technology, she still mixes up some suspense and police drama, traits that leave anyone glazed in each episode.In todays article, I want to propose a slightly different reflection. The idea is that you understand the reasons that may lead you to attend the program, whether or not they relate to your business.Perhaps the analysis is much more connected to our personal than professional life.Be that as it may, bet on reading and enjoy some good information about Altered Carbon!What is Altered Carbon?Directed by Laeta Kalogridis, the same as The Island of Fear and The Terminator: Genesis, Altered Carbon takes place in a futuristic world, more specifically in the 25th century, when society has become habituated to a reality as much as strange: the exchange of bodies. Basically, the mind is digitized and stored and the soul can be transferred to another body, living several lives.The protagonist Takeshi Kovacs, a former elite guerrilla played by Joel Kinnaman, who also made House of Cards and Suicide Squad, wakes up after 250 years in another body.Transferred to this future he had tried to prevent, he relies on the difficult situation of having to adapt to the context and the new society, and is still hired by a millionaire to find out the author of his own murder, so he may have a chance to win a new life on earth. For this, he counts on the aid of an ex-serviceman, who wants to help his daughter and a robot, and of a Mexican police officer.Based on the book by Richard Morgan of the same name, Altered Carbon was launched by Netflix, and mixes several technologies already present, such as virtual reality, artificial intelligence and big data.Why watch Altered Carbon?Si fi series, also called science fiction, may not please everyone at all, especially considering the unattractive productions of the genre, but Altered Carbon seems to escape this rule. Very well produced and full of reflections on our life, society and the world, it is a good request for several reasons.Check some out!1 Social criticismIn Altered Carbon, humans are virtually products that can simply be exchanged.That way, those who have more money can easily clone and stay young forever. People with few resources depend on the government to gain new identities, which do not always correspond to their ages.Does this situation related to social classes seem close to our reality?For this is the criticism made in the series.2 TechnologyIf you have been following everything that virtual reality, artificial intelligence and big data have contributed to our reality, you will surely enjoy watching Altered Carbon. The series mixes all this and shows us again the importance of these technologies, but with something more: that flea behind the ear on where it can reach.3 A good dose of suspenseWho does not like a good suspense full of surprises?Imagine interesting a murder story involving love and betrayal, with the victim initiating the investigation into his own death.Does it seem intriguing?This is the plot of Altered Carbon!4 Inversion of valuesDo religious beliefs connect us to moral values a little more?It could be that yes, it could be that not, but what would happen in a world with total freedom?From the moment that no one dies, it is possible to rethink the question of our attitudes, do you agree?So, no sin, no final judgment, and all those beliefs that permeate society. Moreover, in the series, people become slaves of the system, to the point where they prefer to be practically products to conquer the continuity of life.Did you know more about Altered Carbon?Its worth watching!Although it is a fiction, it is full of technologies that are already part of our life, not exactly as they are shown in the series, but certainly somewhat closer.Presleyson Lima RELATED QUESTION Do you know someone who lived a minimalist lifestyle changed their minds and convert back to standard living? I lived a modest minimal lifestyle in my 20s until I had a serious accident that left me on disability for 6 months, and another year and a half of rehab. Luckily, I had insurance u2026 so I could afford to make several major purchases to recover.A top of the line king sized pillow top bed so I can sleep. A large assortment of excercise and rehabilitation equipmentA huge amount of health based kitchen tools such as food processors, automatic juicer, automatic coffee, etc. to make daily preparations easierComfortable clothingSome toys to stimulate the mind while stuck at home (synthesizers, a grand piano and cnc machine)Then I got married and we decided to have the art and music studios in the house instead of a dedicated warehouse space.Upon getting married we were gifted a gorgeous hand carved antique bedroom set from the 1800's and a lawyer's desk to setup a home office. I also found that a larger family brings more gifts of clothing, kitchenware and household items over birthdays and holidays!The goal is still one day to separate the studio and living space u2026 although my spouse thinks minimal is "stark & cold" and likes more change in life! Her view is I should just buy some land and build a minimalist container house to use as a summer vacation home u2026 but that leaves us with even more (which sorta defeats the purpose of reducing for me).There are no set rules in life.Do you know someone who lived a minimalist lifestyle changed their minds and convert back to standard living?
The XR and You Series: VR for Training
The XR and You Series: VR for Training
In most cases, the human brain learns best with good old-fashioned hands-on training. Many of us can attest to the value of learning by doing from personal experience. For this reason, mid-century educator Edgar Dales Cone of Experience suggests that a real experience is by far the most effective method of learning. Knowing the value of learning by doing, Virtual Reality developers are tackling the task of bringing VR training to any and all occupations which could benefit. We love that incorporating immersive learning within internal training procedures also provides organizations a great segue to using VR and AR for workplace tasks as well.While the applications of virtual learning are widespread, were going highlight our Top 5 Training areas which we think are particularly well-suited to VR. 1. Trades TrainingWe love watching the expansion of VR trades training because it illustrates two prominent benefits of workplace VR; safety and cost savings. Students who begin learning new skills and techniques in an immersive environment will risk fewer injuries and waste less material.2. Learning LanguagesVirtual language immersion is another excellent application of VR technology. Users can seal themselves off with tutors and conversation partners who possess endless patience and unlimited time. Immersive technology presents cost savings in this case as well, because the student can complete an entire program without engaging a real-world educator.3. Public PerformancePart of what makes VR a great training tool is the users knowledge that he or she is safe inside. In the case of public speaking, users can practice addressing a group, getting a feel for the experience while still knowing the listeners arent real. And an audience can respond in challenging ways without real life consequences for the user. The chance to practice in a safe environment may make the difference between acquiring public speaking skill or not at all for many people. 4. Medical MarvelsIf you remember the introduction of miniature cameras into the surgical world, youll no doubt be excited to follow the development of immersive medical training. In partnership with the training medical students receive through bodies donated to science, VR provides unlimited access to realistic and detailed anatomy. Students can access training again and again, achieving more repetition and improving their performance. 5. Equalizing EnforcementPolice and law enforcement professionals around the world are facing increasingly dangerous challenges and we are, quite rightly, holding them to higher standards of performance. Providing realistic training scenarios allows improved outcomes, both for a trainees capacity to understand their role and an instructors ability to evaluate progress.Does your organization have training needs? Are the costly, inefficient, and time-consuming? Consider the benefits of VR training before your next curriculum development meeting and propel your processes into the future. Stambols XR and You Series brings you a collection of snapshots of how Extended Reality technology is changing our lives.Photo Credit: undrey / Adobe StockOriginally published at Stambol Studios RELATED QUESTION What are the latest applications of fiber optic sensors? According to a new market research report published by Credence Research Fiber Optic Sensors Market(Product Type Intrinsic Fiber Optic Sensors, Extrinsic Fiber Optic Sensors; Material Plastic, Glass; End-user Industrial, Oil & Gas, Energy & Utilities, Healthcare, Automotive & Transportation and Defense) Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2018 - 2026, the global fiber optic sensors market is set to exhibit CAGR of 10.1% during the forecast period from 2018 to 2026.Browse the full report InsightsFiber optic sensing has emerged as a prevalent technology across numerous industries including healthcare, automotive, aerospace, civil, manufacturing, and energy. These sensors are capable of measuring a wide variety of parameters including strain, temperature, internal and applied loads, deflection, liquid level and more. Today, fiber optic sensors can be used to measure more than 60 parameters, availing a wide range of application areas. Fiber optic sensors are low cost, lightweight, robust, immune to electromagnetic interference and capable of functioning in harsh environments. Unlike conventional electrical sensors, fiber optic sensors can be positioned close to large EMI sources as well as structures that are prone to lightning strikes.The overall fiber optic sensors market is segmented based on product type, material, end-user, and geography. Based on the product type, the fiber optic sensors market is led by intrinsic sensors accounting for more 2/3rd of the total market value. Further, based on end-user, industrial manufacturing & processing segment leads the fiber optic sensors market. In the following years, the oil & gas segment is expected to register the highest growth rate in the market. Fiber optic sensors have offered a viable solution for well and reservoir surveillance in the oil and gas industry. These sensors are being widely deployed in the oil and gas sector for measuring temperature, chemical composition, pressure, acoustics, and strain. With rising subsea processing and increasing requirement of system monitoring, there has been a growing demand for optical fibers with longer transmission distances and higher bandwidth.On the basis of geography, North America dominated the overall fiber optic sensors market with a share of nearly 34% in the year 2017. The regional market growth is primarily governed by the presence of sophisticated industrial manufacturing & processing sector. The Asia Pacific is expected to demonstrate the highest growth rate during the forecast period. The market growth in the Asia Pacific is estimated to be supported by the rapidly growing industrial sector in China and India. Some of the major companies profiled in the report include ABB Ltd., Halliburton CO, Fiso Technologies, Inc., OMRON Corporation, OmniSens S.A., Opsens Oil and Gas, Deltex Medical Group PLC, Finisar Corporation, Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., Luna Innovations Inc., Ziebel AS, OptaSense (QinetiQ Company), AP Sensing GmbH, PepperlFuchs GmbH, Petrospec Engineering Inc. , Schlumberger Ltd. , AFL Group, SCHOTT AG, TE Connectivity and others.Browse the full report
A Guide to Running a XR Usability Study
A Guide to Running a XR Usability Study
This article is part four of the series that reviews the user testing conducted on Hubs by Mozilla, a social XR platform. Previous posts in this series have covered insights related to accessibility, user experience, and environmental design. The objective of this final post is to give an overview of how the Extended Mind and Mozilla collaborated to execute this study and make recommendations for best practices in user research on cross platform (2D and XR) devices. PARTICIPANTS WILL MAKE OR BREAK THE STUDYResearch outcomes are driven by participant quality so plan to spend a lot of time up front recruiting. If you dont already have defined target users, pick a user profile and recruit against that. In this study, Jessica Outlaw and Tyesha Snow of The Extended Mind sought people who were tech savvy enough to use social media and communicate on smartphones daily, but did not require that they owned head-mounted displays (HMDs) at home. The researchers approach was to recruit for the future user of Hubs by Mozilla, not the current user who might be an early adopter. Across the ten participants in the study, a broad range of professions were represented (3D artist, engineer, realtor, psychologist, and more), which in this case was ideal because Hubs exists as a standalone product. However, if Hubs were in an earlier stage where only concepts or wireframes could be shown to users, it would have been better to include people with VR expertise because they could more easily imagine the potential it. In qualitative research, substantial insights can be generated from between six and twelve users. Beyond twelve users, there tends to be redundancy in the feedback, which doesnt justify the extra costs of recruiting and interviewing those folks. In general, there is more value in running two smaller studies of six people at different iterations of product development, rather than just one study with a larger sample size. In this study, there were ten participants, who provided both diversity of viewpoints and enough consistency that strong themes emerged.The researchers wanted to test Hubs multi-user function by recruiting people to come in pairs. Having friends and romantic partners participate in the study allowed The Extended Mind to observe authentic interactions between people. While many of them were new to XR and some were really impressed by the immersive nature of the VR headset, they were grounded in a real experience of talking with a close companionFor testing a social XR product, consider having people come in with someone they already know. Beyond increasing user comfort, there is another advantage in that it was more efficient for the researchers. They completed research with ten people in a single day, which is a lot in user testing. SUMMARY OF RECRUITING RECOMMENDATIONSRecruit participants who represent the future target user of your product (identifying user profiles is often a separate research project in user-centered design).The farther along the product is in development, the less technologically sophisticated users need to be.You can achieve important insights with as few as six participants. To test social products, consider bringing in people in pairs. This can also be efficient for the researchers.COLLECTING DATAIts important to make users feel welcome when they arrive. Offer them water or snacks. Pay them an honorarium for their time. Give them payment before the interviews begin so that they know their payment is not conditional on them saying nice things about your product. In fact, give them explicit permission to say negative things about the product. Participants tend to want to please researchers so let them know you want their honest feedback. Let them know up front that they can end the study, especially if they become uncomfortable or motion sick.The Extended Mind asked people to sign a consent form for audio, video, and screen recording. All forms should give people the choice to opt out from recordings. In the Hubs by Mozilla study, the format of each interview session was:Welcome and pre-Hubs interview on how participants use technology (20 min)Use Hubs on 3 different devices (40 min)Closing interview on their impressions of Hubs (30 min)Pairs were together for the opening and closing interviews, but separated into different conference rooms for actual product usage. Jessica and Tyesha each stayed with a participant at all times to observe their behaviors in Hubs and then aggregated their notes afterward.One point that was essential was to give people some experience with the Oculus Go before actually showing them Hubs. This was part of the welcome and pre-Hubs interview in this study. Due to the nascent stage of VR, participants need extra time to learn about navigating the menus and controllers. Before people to arrive in any XR experience, people are going to need to have some familiarity with the device. As the prevalence of HMDs increases, taking time to give people an orientation will become less and less necessary. In the meantime, setting a baseline is an important piece for users about where your experiences exist in the context of the devices ecosystem.SUMMARY OF DATA COLLECTION RECOMMENDATIONSPrioritize participant comfortSignal that you are interested in their genuine feedbacKAsk participants for consent to record themConduct pre-test and post-test interviews with participants to get the most insightsAllow time for people to get used to navigating menus and using the controller on new HMDs before testing your experience. GENERATING INSIGHTSOnce all the interviews have been completed, its time to start analyzing it the data. It is important to come up with a narrative to describe the user experience. In this example, Hubs was found to be accessible, fun, good for close conversations, and participants experiences were influenced by the environmental design. Those themes emerged early on and were supported by multiple data points across participants.Using peoples actual words is more impactful than paraphrasing them or just reporting your own observations due to the emotional impact of a first-person experience. For example,The duck makes a delightful sound. is more descriptive than writing Participant reported liking duck sound effects.There are instances where people make similar statements but each used their own words, which helps bolster the overall point. For example, three different participants said they thought Hubs improved communication with their companion, but each had a different way of conveying it:[Hubs is] better than a phone call. Texting doesnt capture our full [expression]This makes it easier to talk because there are visual cues.Attempt to weave together multiple quotes to support each of the themes from the research.User testing will uncover new uses of your product and people will likely spontaneously brainstorm new features they want and more. Expect that users will surprise you with their feedback. You may have planned to test and iterate on the UI of a particular page, but learn in the research that the page isnt desirable and should be removed entirely.SUMMARY OF GENERATING INSIGHTS RECOMMENDATIONSDirect quotes that convey the emotion of the user in the moment are an important tool of qualitative researchPictures, videos, and screen captures can help tell the story of the users experiencesBe prepared to be surprised by user feedbackMozilla & The Extended Mind CollaborationIn this study, Mozilla partnered with The Extended Mind to conduct the research and deliver recommendations on how to improve the Hubs product. For the day of testing, two Hubs developers observed all research sessions and had the opportunity to ask the participants questions. Having Mozilla team members onsite during testing let everyone sync up between test sessions and led to important revisions about how to re-phrase questions, which devices test on, and more.Due to Jessica and Tyesha being outside of the core Hubs team, they were closer to the user perspective and could take a more naturalistic approach to learning about the product. Their goals were to represent the user perspective across the entire project and provide strategic insights that the development team could apply.This post has provided some background on the Hubs by Mozilla user research study and given recommendations on best practices for people who are interested in conducting their own XR research. Get in touch with contact@extendedmind.io with research questions and, also, try Hubs with a friend. You can access it via mozilla. com/. This is the final article in a series that reviews user testing conducted on Mozillas social XR platform, Hubs. Mozilla partnered with Jessica Outlaw and Tyesha Snow of The Extended Mind to validate that Hubs was accessible, safe, and scalable. The goal of the research was to generate insights about the user experience and deliver recommendations of how to improve the Hubs product. Links to the previous posts are below. Part one on accessibilityPart two on the personal connections and playfulness of HubsPart three on how XR environments shape user behaviorI am planning a series of workshops to teach XR design and research. Subscribe to my newsletter to be notified of 2019 course offerings RELATED QUESTION How many volts has the output of a welding machine? To keep things simple, I'll talk about 2 welding machine types only; constant current and constant voltage. Both types will take a high voltage, low amperage AC power supply and turn it into a low voltage-high amperage supply which is more suitable for welding.Why do we use them?Constant current -SMAWthis power supply type provides constant current or amperage Within reason, that is. As you weld, the amperage fluctuates up and down a few amps, but for the sake of keeping it simple, let's say it stays constant. Voltage on the other hand does not. When you turn the machine on, hook up your ground and put a rod in the electrode holder nothing happens, but there is an open circuit voltage (OCV) present at the electrode. OCV can be anywhere from 45 volts to 80 volts. Why?This voltage allows us to establish an arc when we scratch or tap the rod against the work surface, once the circuit closes and we start welding, the voltage drops down to, and can fluctuate between 15 and 40 volts. As we weld however, we cannot hold our electrode an exact distance away from our work, nor can we travel at exactly the same speed; as our arc length increases and decreases, so does the the voltage.Constant Voltage -GMAWThis power supply works a little differently, it supplies a constant voltage Within reason. It's still taking our high voltage low amperage power and flipping it around, but our variables for setting our heat change a little. While stick welding, we control our rod size and amperage, the voltage takes care of itself; with GMAW, we have shielding gas, wire size, wire feed speed (wfs), and voltage. The current or amperage is taken care of by how much wire we feed into the weld pool per minute. The voltage is set to balance the arc and provide the properties we want for transferring our filler metal, as the wire is fed into the pool, the voltage fluctuates. Again, to keep things simple, lets say we have a voltage range of 1040 volts, when I set my current (wire feed speed), I'll use the voltage to balance the arc and provide me with the type of metal transfer called for in the weld procedure
Brief Analysis of the Importance of Preventive Maintenance Management on Medical Equipment
Brief Analysis of the Importance of Preventive Maintenance Management on Medical Equipment
  Author:MeCan Medical–ultrasound machine manufacturersThe hospital's modernization is inseparable from various advanced medical equipment, and the use of advanced medical equipment helps doctors to better judge the patient's condition. However, for medical equipment, high precision, high -priced, complex maintenance, shorter update cycle, the installation and use environment of equipment also requires relatively high requirements.In some large hospitals, medical equipment, as a fixed assets of the hospital, occupies more than half of the total asset value, and it is undoubtedly of great significance for the management of medical equipment. Preventive maintenance of medical equipment is the basis for managing medical equipment, extending the service life of medical equipment, and improving the accuracy of medical equipment diagnosis of diseases.Therefore, it is of great significance to improve the attention of medical equipment maintenance and establish and improve the management system of medical equipment in the hospital.Preventive maintenance concept: Preventive maintenance means that within a certain cycle, the device can systematically check, detect, maintain, and replace the wear parts, so that the equipment can work normally. Through preventive maintenance, the fault rate of the equipment is reduced, the maintenance time of maintenance is reduced, and the work of various tasks will be carried out smoothly.The necessity of implementation of anti -maintenance: The maintenance of medical equipment after use is essential. The implementation of preventive maintenance is to regularly maintain medical equipment. By maintaining the equipment to familiarize the structure of the device, understand the current equipment. During the maintenance process, the maintenance personnel accurately record the important conditions such as the equipment indicator and the work parameters, and then can make a rapid judgment of the fault position after recording the contrast after the medical equipment fails.Through preventive maintenance, the situation of the easy -to -wear parts of medical equipment, timely purchase parts and replace it, thereby reducing the incidence of medical equipment failure, avoiding normal examination and treatment of patients due to medical equipment failure or medical accidents. Implementation of preventive maintenance will allow medical equipment to run for a long time in a healthy state, and the service life will be extended. If you want to know more, please pay attention to the "Prun Medical Device Network", we will regularly update some new content for everyone to browse and read.
Brief Analysis of the Current Development Status and Trend of Chinese Medical Device
Brief Analysis of the Current Development Status and Trend of Chinese Medical Device
  Author:MeCan Medical–ultrasound machine manufacturersAt present, the epidemic is still spreading globally, and international trade and economic growth have stalled. Although the exports of Chinese medical equipment remain stable as a whole, they need to be alert to relevant risks and challenges. The relevant person in charge of the Medical Institution Department of the Medical Insurance Chamber of Commerce pointed out that in the short term, due to the needs of epidemic prevention and immunity, the global market has increased its dependence on the supply chain of Chinese medical device.In the long run, the epidemic has become a catalyst for reshaping the global industrial structure. With the introduction of policies in various countries, international competition will intensify, and the competition between Chinese medical devices in the global market will be more intense.In terms of market risks, the global economic recovery will lower the ability of the international market to procure ordinary medical supplies. The surge in demand for epidemic prevention materials, coupled with the decline in the efficiency of the port work, has caused serious lag in the circulation of containers, bringing a sharp increase in international logistics costs, especially shipping. The rise in raw materials and labor costs, and the strengthening of the supervision of merchants by cross -border e -commerce platforms will further squeeze the export profits of the enterprise.In addition, due to international travel restrictions, it is difficult for engineers and sales staff to conduct promotion activities in overseas markets and after -sales service for some large -scale equipment exported equipment, and it is not conducive to market sales.Overseas market expansion also needs to focus on the impact of changes in international market regulations. For example, the European Union has implemented new medical device regulations (MDR) and in vitro diagnostic medical device regulations (IVDR), pay more attention to the clinical performance of the product, strengthen the traceability of medical device products, and pay attention to improving the transparency of patients.These will improve the management and restrictions on medical device products entering the European market accordingly, and put forward higher requirements for the industry's employees, which will bring about increased costs to Chinese export companies, extending certification cycle, and increasing compliance risks, etc. challenge.
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