Knowledge Related to the Empty Chair

The Empty Chair is a crime novel by Jeffery Deaver, published in 2000. It is the third novel in a series featuring Lincoln Rhyme; the first of which was made into a movie, The Bone Collector

• Other Related Knowledge of oxygen therapy

List of hallmarks of oxygen therapy

Cancer cells have defects in the control mechanisms that govern how often they divide, and in the feedback systems that regulate these control mechanisms (i.e. defects in homeostasis).

Normal cells grow and divide, but have many controls on that growth. They only grow when stimulated by growth factors. If they are damaged, a molecular brake stops them from dividing until they are repaired. If they can't be repaired, they commit programmed cell death (apoptosis). They can only divide a limited number of times. They are part of a tissue structure, and remain where they belong. They need a blood supply to grow.

All these mechanisms must be overcome in order for a cell to develop into a cancer. Each mechanism is controlled by several proteins. A critical protein must malfunction in each of those mechanisms. These proteins become non-functional or malfunctioning when the DNA sequence of their genes is damaged through acquired or somatic mutations (mutations that are not inherited but occur after conception). This occurs in a series of steps, which Hanahan and Weinberg refer to as hallmarks.

Self-sufficiency in growth signalsCancer cells do not need stimulation from external signals (in the form of growth factors) to multiply.Typically, cells of the body require hormones and other molecules that act as signals for them to grow and divide. Cancer cells, however, have the ability to grow without these external signals. There are multiple ways in which cancer cells can do this: by producing these signals themselves, known as autocrine signalling; by permanently activating the signalling pathways that respond to these signals; or by destroying 'off switches' that prevents excessive growth from these signals (negative feedback). In addition, cell division in normal, non-cancerous cells is tightly controlled. In cancer cells, these processes are deregulated because the proteins that control them are altered, leading to increased growth and cell division within the tumor.

Insensitivity to anti-growth signalsCancer cells are generally resistant to growth-preventing signals from their neighbours.To tightly control cell division, cells have processes within them that prevent cell growth and division. These processes are orchestrated by proteins known as tumor suppressor genes. These genes take information from the cell to ensure that it is ready to divide, and will halt division if not (when the DNA is damaged, for example). In cancer, these tumour suppressor proteins are altered so that they don't effectively prevent cell division, even when the cell has severe abnormalities. Another way cells prevent over-division is that normal cells will also stop dividing when the cells fill up the space they are in and touch other cells; known as contact inhibition. Cancer cells do not have contact inhibition, and so will continue to grow and divide, regardless of their surroundings.

Evading programmed cell deathApoptosis is a form of programmed cell death (cell suicide), the mechanism by which cells are programmed to die in the event they become damaged. Cancer cells are characteristically able to bypass this mechanism.Cells have the ability to 'self-destruct'; a process known as apoptosis. This is required for organisms to grow and develop properly, for maintaining tissues of the body, and is also initiated when a cell is damaged or infected. Cancer cells, however, lose this ability; even though cells may become grossly abnormal, they do not undergo apoptosis. The cancer cells may do this by altering the mechanisms that detect the damage or abnormalities. This means that proper signaling cannot occur, thus apoptosis cannot activate. They may also have defects in the downstream signaling itself, or the proteins involved in apoptosis, each of which will also prevent proper apoptosis.

Limitless replicative potentialNon-cancer cells die after a certain number of divisions. Cancer cells escape this limit and are apparently capable of indefinite growth and division (immortality). But those immortal cells have damaged chromosomes, which can become cancerous.Cells of the body don't normally have the ability to divide indefinitely. They have a limited number of divisions before the cells become unable to divide (senescence), or die (crisis). The cause of these barriers is primarily due to the DNA at the end of chromosomes, known as telomeres. Telomeric DNA shortens with every cell division, until it becomes so short it activates senescence, so the cell stops dividing. Cancer cells bypass this barrier by manipulating enzymes (telomerase) to increase the length of telomeres. Thus, they can divide indefinitely, without initiating senescence.

Mammalian cells have an intrinsic program, the Hayflick limit, that limits their multiplication to about 6070 doublings, at which point they reach a stage of senescence.

This limit can be overcome by disabling their pRB and p53 tumor suppressor proteins, which allows them to continue doubling until they reach a stage called crisis, with apoptosis, karyotypic disarray, and the occasional (107) emergence of an immortalized cell that can double without limit. Most tumor cells are immortalized.

The counting device for cell doublings is the telomere, which decreases in size (loses nucleotides at the ends of chromosomes) during each cell cycle. About 85% of cancers upregulate telomerase to extend their telomeres and the remaining 15% use a method called the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres.

Sustained angiogenesisAngiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed. Cancer cells appear to be able to kickstart this process, ensuring that such cells receive a continual supply of oxygen and other nutrients.Normal tissues of the body have blood vessels running through them that deliver oxygen from the lungs. Cells must be close to the blood vessels to get enough oxygen for them to survive. New blood vessels are formed during the development of embryos, during wound repair and during the female reproductive cycle. An expanding tumour requires new blood vessels to deliver adequate oxygen to the cancer cells, and thus exploits these normal physiological processes for its benefit. To do this, the cancer cells acquire the ability to orchestrate production of new vasculature by activating the 'angiogenic switch'. In doing so, they control non-cancerous cells that are present in the tumor that can form blood vessels by reducing the production of factors that inhibit blood vessel production, and increasing the production of factors that promote blood vessel formation.

Tissue invasion and metastasisCancer cells can break away from their site or organ of origin to invade surrounding tissue and spread (metastasize) to distant body parts.One of the most well known properties of cancer cells is their ability to invade neighboring tissues. It is what dictates whether the tumor is benign or malignant, and is the property which enables their dissemination around the body. The cancer cells have to undergo a multitude of changes in order for them to acquire the ability to metastasize, in a multistep process that starts with local invasion of the cells into the surrounding tissues. They then have to invade blood vessels, survive in the harsh environment of the circulatory system, exit this system and then start dividing in the new tissue.

Knowledge Related to the Empty Chair 1

HOT PRODUCTS
no data
GET IN TOUCH WITH US
no data
recommended articles
Case Info Center AI Blog
Things You May Want to Know About Oxygen Therapy
Things You May Want to Know About Oxygen Therapy
An Introduction to oxygen therapyCocaine addiction is the compulsive use of cocaine despite adverse consequences. It arises through epigenetic modification (e.g., through HDAC, sirtuin, and G9a) and transcriptional regulation (primarily through FosB's AP-1 complex) of genes in the nucleus accumbens.Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of oxygen therapyRole of HDAC inhibitors in cocaine addictionHistone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors) have been implicated as a potential treatment for cocaine addicts. HDACs are enzymes that can deacetylate the histones associated with genes. This can activate genes for transcription. Several experiments have shown that inhibiting HDACs involved in histone H3K9 deacetylation reduces drug seeking behavior.It has been known that epigenetic regulations, such as the methylation of H3K9, have a key role in the mechanism of addiction. Recent studies have shown that administering HDAC inhibitors can help reduce the craving for cocaine in rats. Trichostatin A (TsA) is an HDAC inhibitor associated with reduced cocaine-seeking behaviors; it inhibits HDAC classes 1, 3, 4, 6, and 10. Since this HDAC inhibitor has such a significant effect on cocaine-seeking behaviors, scientists have speculated about their ability to reduce a cocaine addict's risk of relapse in the rat model system during rehab.After several tests in which rats were exposed to cocaine followed by either an HDAC inhibitor or a placebo, it was found that HDAC inhibitors had a significant effect on lowering cocaine-seeking behavior. This also suggests an epigenetic mechanism involved in HDAC chromatin regulation. The data is crucial to proving the hypothesis that trichostatin A can remodel chromatin structure and prevent behavioral changes following cocaine exposure. Tests also revealed that HDAC inhibitor administration can not only prevent addiction, but also helps reduce the risk of a relapse in cocaine addicts in the rat model system.Role of HDAC5As the previous findings suggest, chronic cocaine use caused both alterations in the chromatin remodeling activity of HDACs and drug seeking behavior. Renthal et al. focused specifically on the class II histone deacetylase, HDAC5, since it was known to have activity-dependent regulation in neurons. In fact, they found that HDAC5 was a central regulator of the actions of chronic cocaine use and contributed to the behavioral adaptations with its deacetylase activity. Chronic cocaine injections increased HDAC5 phosphorylation at Ser259 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) within 30 minutes. This provides docking sites for 14-3-3 proteins, which mediate the export of HDAC5 out of the nucleus. They also found that CaMKII was necessary for depolarization-induced HDAC5 phosphorylation in NAc tissue, highlighting its role as a kinase for HDAC5. Experiments with mutant proteins and HDAC inhibitors suggested that HDAC5's action is mediated through its catalytic histone deacetylase domain. Rapid phosphorylation and the export of HDAC5 from the nucleus following cocaine use most likely leads to increased pulses of acetylation, targeted gene activation, and behavioral adaptations to long-term cocaine exposure.The second set of experiments that Renthal et al. performed showed that chronic cocaine use induced upregulation of the NK1 receptor protein in HDAC5 knockout mice, which is associated with hyperacetylation of H3 at the NK1R gene promoter. The NK1R gene promoter has been associated with enhanced response to cocaine reward, meaning HDAC5 in normal genomes may decrease cocaine reward with chronic cocaine exposure. They also found key pathways that were implicated in neural plasticity and reward behavior, which included DA receptor signaling, ATF2/CREB signaling, NF-B, NFAT, cytoskeletal remodeling proteins, and ion channels. Their data implicated chromatin remodeling as a mechanism that drives altered gene activation and behavioral responses to cocaine. Using this they were able to conclude that within normal (wild type) genomes, the response to chronic cocaine includes phosphorylation of HDAC5 and export of the deacetylase out of the nucleus to activate downstream target genes. Between exposure and 24hours after, HDAC5 returns to the cell nucleus to limit expression of these cocaine regulated genes by histone deacetylation. Their experiments with HDAC5 knockout mice lent additional support for this hypothesis. Since HDAC5 isn't there to limit the gene's expression, it begins to accumulate with repeated cocaine exposure, with the end result being increased sensitivity to cocaine reward.Changes in critical H3K9me3 modificationsModifications to histones such as methylations and acetylations can change gene expression patterns by activating or deactivating a region of DNA for transcription. The H3K9 position has been shown by several studies to be altered by chronic cocaine use.Addictive behavior observed from long-term cocaine users can be due to changes of the gene expression profiles in the brain's reward circuitry. Most research has been focused on the active regions of the reward-related genes, but Maze et al. focuses at what happens to the heterochromatic regions. Maze et al. showed that heterochromatic regions in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a major reward circuit in the brain, are significantly altered in the H3K9me3 position. Acute cocaine exposure leads to a rapid increase in H3K9me3 within half an hour and decreases back to normal levels within 24hours. Chronic cocaine exposure leads to a slower increase in H3K9me3 within an hour (although it reaches the same level as acute by this time) and a 50% decrease from normal baseline levels within 24hours. This chronic exposure was proposed to decrease heterochromatization (destabilization) within this brain region in patients given repeated cocaine exposure, which implies that the long-term addictive behaviors are affected by this epigenetic mark. They used ChIP-seq to provide supporting evidence that the H3K9me3 modification is mainly localized to intergenic regions. In these areas of the genome, 17 regions of repeat elements (SINEs, LINEs, LTRs, etc.) had significant H3K9me3 state changes in chronic cocaine exposure mouse models. They used quantitative PCR to determine that of these significant elements, the LINE-1 region showed a significant increase in expression levels. LINE-1 is a retrotransposon, so expressing it inappropriately can activate the transposon to insert itself within important genes and destabilizing the DNA. They conclude their findings by suggesting that LINE-1 retrotransposon insertions cause inappropriate or disrupted expression of genes leading to the addictive behavior.Treatment of oxygen therapyAs of May 2014update, there is no effective approved pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction. HDAC inhibitors have been implicated as a potential treatment for cocaine addiction.Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the most effective clinical treatment for psychostimulant addiction in general.
2021 06 25
read more
Know About Home Oxygen Therapy
Know About Home Oxygen Therapy
An overview of home oxygen therapyEric Schopler (February 8, 1927 July 7, 2006) was a German born American psychologist whose pioneering research into autism led to the foundation of the TEACCH programMilitary service and education of home oxygen therapyAfter graduating from high school, Schopler joined the United States Army. In 1949 Schopler earned his bachelor's degree from the University of Chicago. In 1955, he attained a graduate degree in Social Service Administration. He earned a PhD in clinical child psychology in 1964. All three degrees were attained at the University of Chicago.Career of home oxygen therapyEarly careerAfter attaining his graduate degree, Schopler worked from 1955 to 1958 as a family counselor in Rochester, New York. He moved to Rhode Island where for 2 years he worked at the Emma P. Bradley Hospital as the Acting Chief Psychiatric SocialWorker. Then in 1960 worked in Chicago at the Treatment and Research Center for Childhood Schizophrenia. He was an investigator and therapist there until 1964, the same year that he attained his doctorate from University of Chicago.University of North CarolinaSchopler joined the faculty as an associate professor of the Psychiatry department at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1964. He became the director of the Child Research Project in 1966. In collaboration with Dr. Robert Reicher, he applied his earlier research on receptor processes to the treatment of autism. Funding was provided by the National Institute of Mental Health and trials were conducted with autistic children and their parents.As a result of his work for the Child Research Project, the Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) was created in 1971 and he was made co-director in 1972. It is a "pioneering" program for assisting with autism spectrum disorder education, research and service delivery for children and adults. The TEACCH program lead to many advances in knowledge of autism. Schopler showed that most autistic children did not suffer from mental disorders, as was believed by many at the time. He also proved that parents of autistic children could be effective collaborators in the treatment and education of their children. Thanks to these TEACCH results, in 1972 Schopler's methods were rolled out statewide in North Carolina schools and special state-funded clinics.The following year he was made a professor. In 1976 he became the director or TEACCH and remained so until 1993. He became the Associate Chair for Developmental Disabilities in 1992, which he held until 1996. Overlapping his time as Director of TEACCH and as Associate Chair for Developmental Disabilities, Schopler was the Chief Psychologist from 1987 to 1999. He worked at the University of North Carolina's TEACCH program until 2005.The TEACCH methodology has been implemented internationally and, as of 2006, in North Carolina there were 9 TEACCH state funded clinics in operation.Other professional activitiesSchopler was editor for Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders from 1974 till 1997. His successor was Gary B. Mesibov. He was also on the Schizophrenia Bulletin and the Topics in Early Childhood Special Education editorial boards.He was a member of the Society for Research in Child Development, American Association on Mental Deficiency, and American Association for the Advancement of Science. He also served on the advisory boards of Autism Society of America, Autism Society of North Carolina, Linwood Children's Center (Ellicott City, Maryland) and Bitter Sweet Farms (Toledo, Ohio).RecognitionHe received the following recognition for his work:1972 - American Psychiatric Association's Gold Achievement Award for Child Research Project1985 - University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's O. Max Gardner Award for contributions to human welfare1993 - North Carolina Award for public service1997 - American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the Advancement of Knowledge and Service2005 - Autism Society of North Carolina's Lifetime Achievement Award2006 - American Psychological Foundation's Gold Medal for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology2007 - North Carolina General Assembly Joint Resolution honoring the life and memory of Eric Scholper, "a pioneer in the treatment of autismSchopler has spent his life working to determine the precise nature of autism and the most effective ways to treat it. His doctoral research on the sensory preferences of children with autism was among the first experimental studies that helped redefine the condition as a developmental disability, rather than a psychogenic condition caused by poor parenting. His subsequent research into educational treatments for autism, and his use of the parents of autistic children as co-therapists in this treatment, met with resounding success, leading to the formation of TEACCH in 1971 and the program's receipt of the American Psychiatric Association's Gold Achievement Award in 1972. University of North Carolina Health CarePublicationsMore than 200 articles and books were written by Scholper on autism spectrum disorders. This is a partial list of some of the books he's written.Eric Schopler; Robert J. Reichler. (editors). Psychopathology and Child Development: Research and Treatment. New York: Plenum Press, 1976. .mw-parser-output cite.citationfont-style:inherit.mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"""""""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registrationcolor:#555.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output code.cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none;font-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorfont-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inheritISBN0306308703Michael Rutter; Eric Schopler. (editors). Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment. New York: Plenum Press, 1978. ISBN0306310961.Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. Psychoeducational Profile - Revised (PEP-R). Pro-Ed; 1 January 1979. ISBN978-0-89079-238-4.Eric Schopler; Robert J. Reichler; Margaret D. Lansing. Individualized Assessment and Treatment for Autistic and Developmentally Disabled Children. University Park Press, 1980.Eric Schopler; Robert Reichler; Margaret D. Lansing. Teaching Strategies for Parents and Professionals: Volume II. 1980.Eric Schopler; Margaret D. Lansing; Leslie Waters. Teaching Activities for Autistic Children: Volume III. Part of the series Individualized Assessment and Treatment for Autistic and Developmentally Disabled Children. University Park Press, 1982. ISBN0839118007Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. Autism in Adolescents and Adults. Springer; 28 February 1983. ISBN978-0-306-41057-4.Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. (editors) Communication Problems in Autism. Springer; 31 May 1985 ISBN978-0-306-41859-4.Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. Social Behavior in Autism. Springer; 28 February 1986. ISBN978-0-306-42163-1.Eric Schopler; Robert J. Reichler; Barbara Rochen Renner. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS) for diagnostic screening and classification of autism. New York: Irvington, 1986. ISBN0829015884Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. Neurobiological Issues in Autism. Springer; 30 April 1987. ISBN978-0-306-42451-9.Gary Mesibov; Eric Schopler. Adolescent and Adult Psychoeducational Profile (AAPEP). Pro-Ed; 1 September 1988. ISBN978-0-89079-152-3.Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. Diagnosis and Assessment in Autism. Springer; 30 September 1988. ISBN978-0-306-42889-0.Gary B. Mesibov; Eric Schopler; Bruce Schaffer; Rhonda Landrus. Adolescent and Adult Psychoeducational Profile (AAPEP): Volume IV (1988). Pro-ed, 1989. ISBN089079152X.Linda R. Watson; Catherine Lord; Bruce Schaffer; Eric Schopler. Teaching Spontaneous Communication to Autistic and Developmentally Handicapped Children. 'New York: Irvington Publishers Inc., 1988. ISBN0829018328'Eric Schopler; Mary Elizabeth Van Bourgondien; Marie M. Bristol. (editors). Preschool Issues in Autism. New York: Plenum Press, 1993. Part of the series Current Issues in Autism. ISBN0306444402Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. Behavioral Issues in Autism. Springer; 31 March 1994 ISBN978-0-306-44600-9.Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. Learning and cognition in autism. Plenum Press; 1995. ISBN978-0-306-44871-3.Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. (editors). Parent Survival Manual: A Guide to Crisis Resolution in Autism and Related Developmental Disorders. Springer; 30 June 1995 ISBN978-0-306-44977-2.Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov; Linda J. Kunce. Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism?. Springer; 30 April 1998 ISBN978-0-306-45746-3.Eric Schopler; Nurit Yimiya; Cory Shulman; Lee M. Marcus (editors). The Research Basis for Autism Intervention. Plenum Publishing, 2001. ISBN030646585XGary B. Mesibov; Victoria Shea; Eric Schopler. The TEACCH Approach to Autism Spectrum Disorders. Springer; 7 December 2004. ISBN978-0-306-48646-3.
2021 06 25
read more
Knowledge About Oxygen Therapy
Knowledge About Oxygen Therapy
1. Biography of oxygen therapyNeubauer was born in Wilmington, Delaware, on January 16, 1924. He received his undergraduate education at the College of William and Mary, and his medical degree in 1947 at the University of Virginia. After first practicing in Wilmington and Philadelphia, he established a practice in internal medicine in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. He was Chief of Staff and Director of Medical Development at the Cleveland Clinic there, which he had helped found under the earlier name of Beach Hospital.------2. Courses offered of oxygen therapyThe college offered a number of courses including:Public Services (Uniformed)HairdressingBeauty TherapyBusinessConstructionHorticultureIT TrainingSportBasic Skills (English and Maths)IT SkillsChildcareHealth and Social CareFoundation studies (courses for adults with learning difficulties and disabilities)Access to Higher EducationGCSEs (Mathematics and English)A wide range of full-time, part-time and flexible courses for adults.Courses for Businesses (including First Aid, Health and Safety, Management Training)------3. Photochemical internalization of oxygen therapyPhotochemical internalization (PCI) is a drug and gene therapy delivery method originally developed to improve the release of macromolecules and hydrophilic chemotherapeutic agents from endosomes and lysosomes to the cytosol of targeted cancer cells. PCI is based on the use of endosomal and lysosomal localizing amphiphilic photosensitizers which, after activation by light, induce photochemical reactions resulting in destruction of endocytic membranes mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The photochemical destabilization of the membrane of the endocytic vesicle result in an endosomal escape of the entrapped drugs. The technology was invented by Professor Kristian Berg at the Norwegian Radium Hospital------4. Surfactant therapy of oxygen therapySurfactant therapy is the medical administration of exogenous surfactant. Surfactants used in this manner are typically instilled directly into the trachea. When a baby comes out of the womb and the lungs are not developed yet, they require administration of surfactant in order to process oxygen and survive. This condition that the baby has is called newborn respiratory distress syndrome, and it is treatable. Surfactant coat the smallest parts of the lungs called the alveoli and helps for oxygen to go in and for carbon dioxide to go out. How surfactant does this is by not allowing the alveoli to collapse and to retain their inflated shape when the baby exhales.In premature babies the type II pneumocytes, special lung cells that make surfactant, are not working yet. This means that the baby needs to get surfactant until that baby can make the surfactant on his own. In addition, the baby will need to be monitored and checked regularly as well as intubated or put on CPAP so that he can breathe. This means that until he is able to make surfactant and breathe on his own, he needs to be watched carefully by doctors and nurses.------5. William C. Stadie of oxygen therapyWilliam Christopher Stadie (June 15, 1886 September 12, 1959) was a researcher, a Diabetes specialist. He was John Herr Musser Emeritus Professor of Research Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. He also served as an editor of the Diabetes, the journal of the American Diabetes Association. Other distinctions included: honorary degree of the University of Pennsylvania, the Phillips Medal of the American College of Physicians (1941), the Kober Medal for 1955 from the Association of American Physicians and the Banting Medal of the American Diabetes Association. During the 1918 influenza epidemic Stadie invented oxygen therapy for treatment of cyanosis, a condition resulting from pneumonia.------6. Criticisms of oxygen therapyAn article in Nature Reviews Cancer in 2010 pointed out that five of the 'hallmarks' were also characteristic of benign tumours. The only hallmark of malignant disease was its ability to invade and metastasize.An article in the Journal of Biosciences in 2013 argued that original data for most of these hallmarks is lacking. It argued that cancer is a tissue-level disease and these cellular-level hallmarks are misleading.------7. Percutaneous transtracheal ventilation of oxygen therapyPercutaneous transtracheal ventilation is the delivery of oxygen to the lungs through an over-the-needle catheter inserted through the skin into the trachea using a high pressure gas source is considered a form of conventional ventilation.Percutaneous transtracheal ventilation may be mistaken for transtracheal jet ventilation, which is not considered conventional ventilation and refers to high-frequency ventilation; a low tidal volume ventilation and needs specialized ventilators only available in critical care units.------8. James Haim I. Bicher of oxygen therapyJames Haim I. Bicher (born May 12, 1937 in San Cristbal, Santa Fe, Argentina) is an American radiation oncologist. He is a pioneer in the clinical use of hyperthermia combined with low dose (protracted) radiation therapy (thermoradiotherapy). He is a founder and past president of ISOTT, North American Hyperthermia Group, and the American Society of Clinical Hyperthermic Oncology. Bicher was a student of Bernardo Alberto Houssay, and one of the contributors to the basic principles that allowed later development of Plavix.------9. Southside, Binghamton of oxygen therapyThe Southside, as the name implies, is a neighborhood in the southern section of the New York State city of Binghamton. It is primarily a residential neighborhood with some commercial and industrial activity along Vestal and Conklin avenues.Binghamton and Vestal, east of the remainder of Vestal, west of the town of Conklin and south of the Susquehanna River and the rest of the City of Binghamton.The area's "main drags" are Vestal and Conklin avenues, which, in accordance with their name, connect Binghamton with those neighbors.Due to the large differences between the east and west sections of the Southside, it is home to two neighborhood assemblies; Southside East and Southside West.------10. Discolysis of oxygen therapyDiscolysis, also called chemonucleolysis or nucleolysis, is a treatment for a herniated disc that seeks to alleviate associated neurological symptoms through enzymatic or chemical destruction or softening of the nucleus pulposis. The procedure was first reported by Lyman W. Smith in 1964, and used chymopapain. Discolysis using chymopapain is no longer practiced because of the risk of anaphylaxis and of transverse myelitis.Discolysis has also been used to describe a form of ozone therapy where an oxygen-ozone solution is injected into the intervertebral disc. This method is not well-accepted in part due to a lack of standardization of technique, training and equipment. In the United States, the procedure lacks FDA approval. The authors of a 2018 systematic review noted that only a small number of poor-quality studies on the effects of ozone discolysis in the low back were available, and while they reported efficacy, potentially serious complications were underreported. The authors concluded that ozone discolysis required more study with "adequate and consistent methodologies".------11. Dox of oxygen therapyDox may refer to:Dox, a white dwarf star named SDSSJ12406710 which contains a nearly pure oxygen atmosphere.dox, an IO/FDIS 639-3 code for Bussa languageDox, a type of WarezDornier Do X, the German aircraftBrainloop Dox, a German Enterprse File Sync & Share Solution and registered trademarkDirect oximetryDog-fox hybrid, a supposed hybrid between a fox and a dogDoxing, Internet-based researching and publishing personally identifiable information about an individualDesign of experiments, a statistical approach to experimental design------12. The Hallmarks of Cancer of oxygen therapyThe hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this listreprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the tumor microenvironment. Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer.By November 2010, the paper had been referenced over 15,000 times by other research papers, and was downloaded 20,000 times a year between 2004 and 2007.self-published source? As of March 2011, it was Cell's most cited article.In an update published in 2011 ("Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation"), Weinberg and Hanahan proposed two new hallmarks: (1) abnormal metabolic pathways and (2) evading the immune system, and two enabling characteristics: (1) genome instability, and (2) inflammation.------13. Southside West of oxygen therapySouthside West is the area of the Southside west of Pennsylvania Avenue, stretching south and west to the Binghamton and Vestal town lines. The entire area is suburban in character with mansion-like homes on large plots strung along the rolling hills. Most of the Southside West stretches up South Mountain, also Ross Mountain. The schoolchildren attend MacArthur Elementary and, in most cases, West Middle School. Due to displacement from the flood, results for MacArthur Elementary are not available for 2013. Test scores the previous year, based on the lower state standards, showed performance to be similar to state averages. Results for West Middle School indicate 23.3-28.1% of students met the new ELA standards while 16.9-20.6% met the new math standards. Between 28.8-40.8% placed at Level 1 in ELA while 31.3-44.8 placed in Level 1 for Math------14. Medical board discipline of oxygen therapyThe Medical Board of California has disciplined Bicher three times. In 1995, the Board placed him on probation for 18 months. In 2004, in response to new charges, Bicher was placed on five years' probation. In 2006, in response to a new accusation, Bicher admitted no wrongdoing but agreed to have his probationary period extended by two years. In 2009, an Administrative Law judge granted Bicher's requested to have his probationary period terminated early.------15. Deprivation of oxygen therapyDeprivation or deprive may refer to:Deprivation index, a measure of the level of poverty in an areaForfeiture (law), deprivation or destruction of a right in consequence of the non-performance of some obligation or conditionHypoxia (medical), when the body is deprived of adequate oxygen at the tissue levelLishenets (Russian: , lit.'deprivation-person'), a person stripped of right to vote in the Soviet Union of 19181936Loss of consortium, deprivation of the benefits of a family relationship due to injuries caused by a tortfeasor------16. Givosiran of oxygen therapyGivosiran, sold under the brand name Givlaari, is for the treatment of adults with acute hepatic porphyria, a genetic disorder resulting in the buildup of toxic porphyrin molecules which are formed during the production of heme (which helps bind oxygen in the blood). Givosiran is a small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed towards 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase, an important enzyme in the production of heme.The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers it to be a first-in-class medication.------17. Breath-holding spell of oxygen therapyBreath-holding spells (BHS) are the occurrence of episodic apnea in children, possibly associated with loss of consciousness, and changes in postural tone.Breath-holding spells occur in approximately 5% of the population with equal distribution between males and females. They are most common in children between 6 and 18 months and usually not present after 5 years of age. They are unusual before 6 months of age. A positive family history can be elicited in 25% of cases. They may be confused with a seizure disorder. They are sometimes observed in response to frustration during disciplinary conflict.------18. Southside East of oxygen therapySouthside East can be defined as the area of the Southside of Binghamton east of Pennsylvania Avenue, stretching south and east to the Binghamton and Conklin town lines. The western section of South Side East is an urban neighborhood with blocks upon blocks of single to multiple-family dwellings. The eastern section is almost exclusively suburban in character in addition to containing some of the city's public housing developments which are composed of townhouses. The schoolchildren of the Southside East district attend Benjamin Franklin Elementary, then East Middle School. On the 2013 NY State English and Math Test scores for Benjamin Franklin Elementary School, depending upon grade, 4.2-10.8% of students met the new state standards in math and 7.2-9.5% met the new state standards in ELA. The majority of students placed in Level 1 for math and ELA. Results for East Middle School show 13.9-14.2% of students met the new state ELA standards and 6-7.6% met the math new state standards. Approximately half of the students placed in Level 1.
2021 06 25
read more
Understand Oxygen Therapy
Understand Oxygen Therapy
An overview of oxygen therapyBreath-holding spells (BHS) are the occurrence of episodic apnea in children, possibly associated with loss of consciousness, and changes in postural tone.Breath-holding spells occur in approximately 5% of the population with equal distribution between males and females. They are most common in children between 6 and 18 months and usually not present after 5 years of age. They are unusual before 6 months of age. A positive family history can be elicited in 25% of cases. They may be confused with a seizure disorder. They are sometimes observed in response to frustration during disciplinary conflict.Treatment of oxygen therapyThe most important approach is to reassure the family, because witnessing a breath-holding spell is a frightening experience for observers. There is no definitive treatment available or needed for breath-holding spells, as the child will eventually outgrow them.Some trials have demonstrated the efficacy of iron therapy, especially because although BHS can readily occur without anemia, BHS has been found to be exaggerated by the presence of anemia. Other studies have supported the use of piracetam; a 1998 study indicating that over two months piracetam reduced BHS incidence by sixty percent, twice as much as a placebo. All of these studies agree with the established medical view that a pharmacological agent is not necessary, although it may be desirable for the comfort of the parent and child.Two articles on breath-holding spells strongly suggest that parents consider having their child be tested by electrocardiogram for the rare, but real possibility that the BHS episodes are actually a symptom of prolonged QT-syndrome, a serious but treatable form of cardiac arrythmia.Diagnosis of oxygen therapyClassificationThere are four types of breath-holding spells.The most common is termed simple breath-holding spell, in which the manifestation is the holding of breath in and expiration. The usual precipitating event is a frustration or injury leading to the temporary cessation of breathing in and expiration. There is no major alteration of circulation or oxygenation and the recovery is spontaneous.The second type are the Cyanotic breath-holding spells. They are usually precipitated by anger or frustration although they may occur after a painful experience. The child cries and has forced expiration sometimes leading to cyanosis (blue in color), loss of muscle tone, and loss of consciousness. The child usually recovers within a minute or two, but some fall asleep for an hour or so. Physiologically, there is often hypocapnea (low levels of carbon dioxide) and usually hypoxia (low levels of oxygen). The events are thought to occur due to a variety of factors, including the fact that the child is not breathing, there is increased intrathoracic pressure secondary to the Valsalva maneuver, and decreased cardiac output. This eventually leads to a significant decrease of circulation to the brain and ultimately, loss of consciousness. There is no postictal phase (as is seen with seizures), no incontinence, and the child is fine in between spells. EEGs are normal in these children. There is no relationship to the subsequent development of seizures or cerebral injury as a consequence of breath holding spells.In the third type, known as Pallid breath-holding spells, the most common stimulus is a painful event. The child turns pale (as opposed to blue) and loses consciousness with little if any crying. The EEG is also normal, and again there is no postictal phase, nor incontinence. The child is usually alert within a minute or so. There may be some relationship with adulthood syncope in children with this type of spell.A fourth type, known as Complicated breath-holding spells, may simply be a more severe form of the two most common types. This type generally begins as either a cyanotic or pallid spell that then is associated with seizure like activity. An EEG taken while the child is not having a spell is still generally normal.The diagnosis of a breath-holding spell is made clinically. A good history including the sequence of events, lack of incontinence and no postictal phase, help to make an accurate diagnosis. Some families are advised to make a video recording of the events to aid diagnosis. An electrocardiogram (ECG) may rule out cardiac arrhythmia as a cause. There is some evidence that children with anemia (especially iron deficiency) may be more prone to breath-holding spells.
2021 06 25
read more
What Is Oxygen Therapy?
What Is Oxygen Therapy?
Did you know that the air we breathe contains only 20% oxygen? While this amount is generally sufficient for a regular person, people with chronic lung or breathing conditions may find it extremely low. Therefore, when blood oxygen levels are low, you may feel shortness of breath, fatigue or confusion.Furthermore, in the long term, lack of oxygen in the blood can pose serious health risks, that are better to be prevented than treated. That's why oxygen therapy was created for people to deliver oxygen to their bloodstream. Let's take a look at oxygen therapy, how it works, who needs it, the benefits and what it's used for:Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides additional oxygen to patients who struggle to obtain enough. As you may know, different diseases and ailments can cause a person to not receive enough oxygen. Because of this, oxygen therapy is a viable solution for those people to receive the oxygen their bodies need to function normally.Simply feeling shortness of breath is not always a qualifier for needing oxygen therapy. It's likely your doctor will require blood tests to study the amount of oxygen in your blood levels. Once your doctor can definitively determine that your blood levels are low, he or she may then recommend you oxygen therapy, whether long-term or for a short period of time.What are the symptoms of low oxygen?When you are not receiving enough oxygen, you may experience one or more symptoms including rapid breathing, shortness of breath, increased heart rate, wheezing, sweating, and fatigue. These symptoms can negatively impact your daily habits and overall quality of life.The oxygen is usually administered through a breathing tube, a mask or nasal prongs. People with chronic breathing problems may also receive a portable oxygen tank so that they may have access to the oxygen anywhere outside the clinic. There are a few different oxygen therapies that can be prescribed based on a patient's analysis results, including oxygen gas, liquid oxygen, oxygen concentrators and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.In hyperbaric oxygen therapy, you will breathe pure oxygen in a pressurized room or through a pressurized tube, allowing your lungs to gather more oxygen than they normally do. In this pressurized room-or hyperbaric chamber-the air pressure is increased up to four times the normal air pressure level.What is Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy used for?Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can be used to treat many different serious infections, wounds and more. Just a few include:Both oxygen therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy deliver incredible benefits to those being treated. When administered regularly or until the doctor deems necessary, oxygen therapy can aid in easier breathing, increase exercise tolerance, improve sex life, and facilitate to safer air travel. Additionally, oxygen therapy can reduce the complications associated with COPD, pulmonary hypertension, heart failure and more by relieving shortness of breath, fatigue, and dizziness. On top of that, for COPD patients, oxygen therapy can even prolong life.Why any other element except fluorine wouldn't take electrons from oxygen?You can consider thinking about charge to volume density. Fluorine is very small and has highest charge to volume ratio among other group 17 elements. For that reason only fluorine is able to snatch electrons from oxygen.Between monoatomic gas(only oxygen) and diatomic gas(air) who haves the higher density?If you use the ideal gas law, PV = nRT and rearrange it, you will find: n/V = P/RT n/V is moles per unit volume and the weight is just the number of moles times the molecular weight in grams per mole. So, since the molecular weight of the monatomic gas is 1/2 that of the diatomic gas, the density in g/L of the diatomic gas (O2) would be twice as much. That being said, there is little chance you could get a stable volume of monatomic oxygen, it would readily combine to make O2. Update: I beg to differ with Mr. Trevor. The density is defined as weight per unit volume. Take the weights he has given for each gas and divide them by the STP molar volume of 22.4L and you have the density! Now the moles are constant (as shown in my equation above), but the density depends on weight.From where do the organisms get the oxygen and the glucose they need for the cellular respiration ?Plants, algaes, and cyanobacteria must be producing more oxygen than they actually need to use themselves
2021 09 10
read more
Casey Diskin Encourages Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Autism Recovery
Casey Diskin Encourages Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Autism Recovery
After earning two advanced degrees in the field of child development, Casey Diskin focused her career on helping kids with disabilities overcome daily obstacles and achieve lasting personal growth through a range of specialized approaches. She believes one of the biggest solutions for children with autism is hyperbaric oxygen therapy, which relies on controlled pressure to increase oxygen in the blood.Casey Diskin has served roles in a variety of medical facilities that center around child behavior and kids with learning or other disabilities. Her work helps children improve their behavior and achieve growth through specialized teachings and therapies relying on breakthrough advances. Diskin believes one of the most underutilized resources available to accomplish this is hyperbaric oxygen therapy, which has been used for years to treat many medical concerns but has only recently been used for children with disabilities."Medically, there is evidence that individuals with autism bace inflammation in the brain," says Casey Diskin. "Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) medically addresses the issue by reducing the inflammation. The program we've created is a multi-therapy approach to treating autism that includes sessions of HBOT for each client. We believe in creating a synergistic approach that allows us to treat the medical issues of our clients while simultaneously teaching functional socially significant life skills. "Casey Diskin says that after seeing the results from hyperbaric oxygen therapy, parents across the country began seeking out HBOT therapy for children on the autism spectrum.Hyperbaric oxygen therapy works by infusing pure oxygen in a pressurized room or tube that patients breathe in over their session. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is already a well-established treatment in medical facilities throughout the country for decompression sickness, which is a hazard of scuba diving. However, it has been used to treat a variety of conditions such as serious infections, air bubbles in blood vessels, and wounds that wo not heal because of components like radiation injury or diabetes.When patients undergo hyperbaric oxygen therapy, they are placed in a chamber where the air pressure is increased. Under these conditions, human lungs can take in more oxygen than would be possible when breathing oxygen normally. The vascular system then carries the high levels of oxygen throughout the body and uses it as needed. The heightened oxygen levels can fight off bacteria and stimulate the release of growth factors and stem cells, which promote faster and more thorough healing.The human body's tissues need an adequate supply of oxygen to function, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases the overall amount of oxygen your blood can carry. Already, parents have found that employing this therapy on kids with autism promotes improved brain function that only gets better with continued use."While our clients heal internally from HBOT, they work one-on-one with our team each day to develop the functional skills such as potty training, putting on their shoes, making friends or persevering through tough tasks," says Casey Diskin. "Our program works on the skills needed for success at school and in the home, ultimately helping us prepare these kids for a better life and a brighter future. ".How much water (in kg) and energy (in Watt-Hour) does it take to make 211kg of hydrogen and 1264kg of oxygen?211 kg = 211000grams= 211000/2[=x] moles of H2 , so at least x moles of water has to be electrolyzed ! Similarly compute the O2 requirements also.[say y moles] If x>y, you must look for more O2, & vice versa. The qty of water for the larger of the two[x,& y] has to be split with energy > 165 K calories /mole ! Pl. convert this into any unit of your choice ! But the space program planning need not be precisely this way & the fuels need not[ & may not ] be always O2/H2. Other factors do count !Should heart-to-body energy consumption ratio equal oxygen consumption ratio?You are comparing the theoretical mechanical work performed by the heart (your 1.33 W number) with the chemical energy consumed in accomplishing that in a biological system. One is theoretical and one is empirical. The heart in fact consumes about 10% of the energy of the body even though it's only 1% of the weight, owing to the special nature of cardiac muscle tissue (which is unique to the heart organ). It's a "design" that can go nonstop for one billion contractions or more, and which would have been ludicrously inefficient to use for skeletal musculature. Your 5x factor is in line with typical efficiency measurements of muscle work, around 20-25%
2021 09 10
read more
Can Hydrogen Peroxide Cause Death?
Can Hydrogen Peroxide Cause Death?
I've heard of Oxygen Therapy, but nothing could convince me to drink the stuff other than swishing it around for whiter teeth or a cut. When I had a medical difficulty, I started to put cosmetic grade peroxide in my bath water (at the risk of looking real weird, I will admit this was from high strength hair color developers found in beauty supply stores, and I still question the safety of that.. but afterall it is understood to be on the skin at lengths of time. . not that I trust the ingredients in a lot of products that are allowed for the skin). I think that people tend to underestimate the power of skin absorption. A little fizzy kind of. I did think I got a little energy buzz from it, but at the same time, I think there was a tendency to conk out and sleep afterwards.1. Is ist possible for death to occur due to over admistered oxygen therapy; at night for instance?Depending on the liter flow. Some COPDers can only handle 2 liters of O2. While others can handle more. Find out what is the best amount of liters of O2 that he can handle. One that gives him a good sat and does not make him feel bad. A way to tell if he is getting to much O2 or if the liter flow is too high, is if he becomes drowsy and incoherent. Too much O2 flow can knock a COPDers drive to breathe and will make them sleepy and not want to breathe. The bad effects of O2 come from the liter flow and not how long they have it on. He can have it on all day and be fine but if you increase the liter flow too much it can make him sick2. COVID-19: How 'Oxygen-at-Home' via Concentrators Can Be a Life SaverOn April 19, Nagpur-based Simran Nashine logged into her Twitter account to seek help for 41-year-old Girish Kesai, a COVID-19 patient. His oxygen saturation levels had dropped to 82%. It had been well over 24 hours since his health had started deteriorating, and the wait for a hospital bed with an oxygen facility was only increasing. Fortunately, within the next few hours, Girish was able to receive admission. In those critical hours between his oxygen levels dropping and him finally being admitted to the hospital, his life depended on an oxygen concentrator. This machine filters oxygen from the atmosphere and helps patients access it through a mask or cannula. "The machine helped maintain his oxygen levels and prevent his health from deteriorating faster. It bought us time to scramble for an oxygen bed for further treatment. Without the concentrator, it would have been difficult to sustain for long," Simran tells The Better India. Like Girish, millions of COVID-19 patients across India are struggling to breathe during the initial stages of infection. Hospitals and the medical infrastructure are overwhelmed, resulting in a lack of oxygen beds and ventilators. If the administration of oxygen is delayed, a patient's health can deteriorate so fast that the results can be fatal. Aarti Nimkar, former president of the Indian Medical Association (IMA), Pune, says an oxygen concentrator can be a life-saver during cases in which a patient needs mild oxygen. "Ideally, oxygen levels in the body should be above 95. However, in COVID-19, the disease causes lung fibrosis and affects breathing among patients. A feeling of breathlessness, shortage of breath, chest pain and other respiratory issues are common symptoms. In such cases, the patients need oxygen therapy at the soonest, as the levels may start dropping. Such patients need assistance to compensate for inadequate breathing capabilities," she says, adding, "The device can help boost oxygen levels if they drop to 80-85." She adds that the devices are available in 5-10 litres per minute flow capacities, cost between Rs 25,000 and Rs 60,000, and should be used under the supervision of doctors. "The machine can buy crucial time for patients. They may rely on the device before the ambulance arrives and they are hospitalised," Aarti adds. Aarti says the device can help boost a patient's oxygen levels from 85 to up to 90 or 95, and even maintain these parameters to some extent. "Increased levels reduce the struggle for the patient and risks of health complications caused due to shortage of oxygen," she adds. Gujarat-based Ami Joshi, director of Ashmi Healthcare Private Limited says that over a hundred patients have benefited from oxygen concentrators since the surge in cases during the second wave. "The device is simple to use, as it does not have a manual regulator like oxygen tanks. It prevents excess discharge and can be handled by the patient as needed. The maintenance cost is low as it does not require refills. Only the water dehumidifier needs replacement as per the use. In some cases, two devices of 5 litres/per minute flow can be used for a single patient if required," she says. "The oxygen concentrator has also helped patients showing oxygen levels as low as 70," Ami says, adding that each machine is available on rent at Rs 400 or sometimes lent for free to people who cannot afford it. Explaining the functioning of the device Pune-based Sundeep Salvi, director of Chest Research Foundation (CRF), says, "The atmospheric air consists of about 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and then other gases. The oxygen concentrator works by absorbing air from the surroundings and filtering out nitrogen and other gases. The oxygen is stored in a cylinder to be inhaled by the user." The machine operates on electricity and requires uninterrupted power supply with power-back ups. The machine starts releasing oxygen at the push of a button. The device filters nitrogen and increases the concentration of oxygen for inhalation. It is recommended to use the concentrator only if the SPO2 (oxygen saturation) level drops below 95. It is mandatory to have a doctor's approval to use the device. Use an oxygen mask or nasal cannula as recommended by the medical expert for inhalation. Ensure the filters are cleaned and do not block the air entry. It may affect the performance of the device. Patients with asthma, COPD and respiratory ailments can also use it if prescribed by the doctors. Sundeep cautions that an oxygen concentrator cannot be a replacement for oxygen or a ventilator. "It can only act as a cushion before the severity of the disease increases. Patients with moderate and severe health conditions will need higher doses of oxygen, and the device cannot meet those heavy requirements," he explains. "On many occasions, the severity increases dramatically. The oxygen levels in the patient drop suddenly. In such cases, the patient should be moved immediately to oxygen or ventilator beds. The oxygen concentrator will prove futile," he adds. Sundeep believes that oxygen concentrators can be more beneficial post-treatment. "The device can work as a support system during the recovery stage of the COVID-19, as here, smaller doses of oxygen are required. This way, bed occupancy at the hospital reduces, and the patient can continue the treatment at home. The vacated bed becomes available for another patient who is in more urgent need of oxygen or a ventilator," he adds. Sudha Khisti from Nagpur is one such COVID-19 patient recovering from the disease. "I was diagnosed on March 25 and remained hospitalised for almost 20 days. As I suffer from asthma, the doctor was concerned about my health and suggested I buy an oxygen concentrator," she says. The 68-year-old adds that moving out of the hospital reduced the chances of getting reinfected and her family members contracting COVID-19. "The device has proven to be a game-changer. After using it for a week, my oxygen levels have increased, and my dependency on the device has reduced. Earlier, I used it for almost five hours a day. But now, I use it only for a couple of hours. It has made me confident about my health," she says. Aarti emphasises that oxygen concentrators do benefit patients, especially in difficult situations. "It would be appreciated if the government can waive taxes or reduce the prices of these devices. It will make it more affordable for common people and prove beneficial in times of the pandemic," she adds. To procure an oxygen concentrator, please click here, here and here.
2021 09 10
read more
Knowledge About Oxygen Therapy
Knowledge About Oxygen Therapy
1. Biography of oxygen therapyNeubauer was born in Wilmington, Delaware, on January 16, 1924. He received his undergraduate education at the College of William and Mary, and his medical degree in 1947 at the University of Virginia. After first practicing in Wilmington and Philadelphia, he established a practice in internal medicine in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. He was Chief of Staff and Director of Medical Development at the Cleveland Clinic there, which he had helped found under the earlier name of Beach Hospital.------2. Courses offered of oxygen therapyThe college offered a number of courses including:Public Services (Uniformed)HairdressingBeauty TherapyBusinessConstructionHorticultureIT TrainingSportBasic Skills (English and Maths)IT SkillsChildcareHealth and Social CareFoundation studies (courses for adults with learning difficulties and disabilities)Access to Higher EducationGCSEs (Mathematics and English)A wide range of full-time, part-time and flexible courses for adults.Courses for Businesses (including First Aid, Health and Safety, Management Training)------3. Photochemical internalization of oxygen therapyPhotochemical internalization (PCI) is a drug and gene therapy delivery method originally developed to improve the release of macromolecules and hydrophilic chemotherapeutic agents from endosomes and lysosomes to the cytosol of targeted cancer cells. PCI is based on the use of endosomal and lysosomal localizing amphiphilic photosensitizers which, after activation by light, induce photochemical reactions resulting in destruction of endocytic membranes mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The photochemical destabilization of the membrane of the endocytic vesicle result in an endosomal escape of the entrapped drugs. The technology was invented by Professor Kristian Berg at the Norwegian Radium Hospital------4. Surfactant therapy of oxygen therapySurfactant therapy is the medical administration of exogenous surfactant. Surfactants used in this manner are typically instilled directly into the trachea. When a baby comes out of the womb and the lungs are not developed yet, they require administration of surfactant in order to process oxygen and survive. This condition that the baby has is called newborn respiratory distress syndrome, and it is treatable. Surfactant coat the smallest parts of the lungs called the alveoli and helps for oxygen to go in and for carbon dioxide to go out. How surfactant does this is by not allowing the alveoli to collapse and to retain their inflated shape when the baby exhales.In premature babies the type II pneumocytes, special lung cells that make surfactant, are not working yet. This means that the baby needs to get surfactant until that baby can make the surfactant on his own. In addition, the baby will need to be monitored and checked regularly as well as intubated or put on CPAP so that he can breathe. This means that until he is able to make surfactant and breathe on his own, he needs to be watched carefully by doctors and nurses.------5. William C. Stadie of oxygen therapyWilliam Christopher Stadie (June 15, 1886 September 12, 1959) was a researcher, a Diabetes specialist. He was John Herr Musser Emeritus Professor of Research Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. He also served as an editor of the Diabetes, the journal of the American Diabetes Association. Other distinctions included: honorary degree of the University of Pennsylvania, the Phillips Medal of the American College of Physicians (1941), the Kober Medal for 1955 from the Association of American Physicians and the Banting Medal of the American Diabetes Association. During the 1918 influenza epidemic Stadie invented oxygen therapy for treatment of cyanosis, a condition resulting from pneumonia.------6. Criticisms of oxygen therapyAn article in Nature Reviews Cancer in 2010 pointed out that five of the 'hallmarks' were also characteristic of benign tumours. The only hallmark of malignant disease was its ability to invade and metastasize.An article in the Journal of Biosciences in 2013 argued that original data for most of these hallmarks is lacking. It argued that cancer is a tissue-level disease and these cellular-level hallmarks are misleading.------7. Percutaneous transtracheal ventilation of oxygen therapyPercutaneous transtracheal ventilation is the delivery of oxygen to the lungs through an over-the-needle catheter inserted through the skin into the trachea using a high pressure gas source is considered a form of conventional ventilation.Percutaneous transtracheal ventilation may be mistaken for transtracheal jet ventilation, which is not considered conventional ventilation and refers to high-frequency ventilation; a low tidal volume ventilation and needs specialized ventilators only available in critical care units.------8. James Haim I. Bicher of oxygen therapyJames Haim I. Bicher (born May 12, 1937 in San Cristbal, Santa Fe, Argentina) is an American radiation oncologist. He is a pioneer in the clinical use of hyperthermia combined with low dose (protracted) radiation therapy (thermoradiotherapy). He is a founder and past president of ISOTT, North American Hyperthermia Group, and the American Society of Clinical Hyperthermic Oncology. Bicher was a student of Bernardo Alberto Houssay, and one of the contributors to the basic principles that allowed later development of Plavix.------9. Southside, Binghamton of oxygen therapyThe Southside, as the name implies, is a neighborhood in the southern section of the New York State city of Binghamton. It is primarily a residential neighborhood with some commercial and industrial activity along Vestal and Conklin avenues.Binghamton and Vestal, east of the remainder of Vestal, west of the town of Conklin and south of the Susquehanna River and the rest of the City of Binghamton.The area's "main drags" are Vestal and Conklin avenues, which, in accordance with their name, connect Binghamton with those neighbors.Due to the large differences between the east and west sections of the Southside, it is home to two neighborhood assemblies; Southside East and Southside West.------10. Discolysis of oxygen therapyDiscolysis, also called chemonucleolysis or nucleolysis, is a treatment for a herniated disc that seeks to alleviate associated neurological symptoms through enzymatic or chemical destruction or softening of the nucleus pulposis. The procedure was first reported by Lyman W. Smith in 1964, and used chymopapain. Discolysis using chymopapain is no longer practiced because of the risk of anaphylaxis and of transverse myelitis.Discolysis has also been used to describe a form of ozone therapy where an oxygen-ozone solution is injected into the intervertebral disc. This method is not well-accepted in part due to a lack of standardization of technique, training and equipment. In the United States, the procedure lacks FDA approval. The authors of a 2018 systematic review noted that only a small number of poor-quality studies on the effects of ozone discolysis in the low back were available, and while they reported efficacy, potentially serious complications were underreported. The authors concluded that ozone discolysis required more study with "adequate and consistent methodologies".------11. Dox of oxygen therapyDox may refer to:Dox, a white dwarf star named SDSSJ12406710 which contains a nearly pure oxygen atmosphere.dox, an IO/FDIS 639-3 code for Bussa languageDox, a type of WarezDornier Do X, the German aircraftBrainloop Dox, a German Enterprse File Sync & Share Solution and registered trademarkDirect oximetryDog-fox hybrid, a supposed hybrid between a fox and a dogDoxing, Internet-based researching and publishing personally identifiable information about an individualDesign of experiments, a statistical approach to experimental design------12. The Hallmarks of Cancer of oxygen therapyThe hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this listreprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the tumor microenvironment. Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer.By November 2010, the paper had been referenced over 15,000 times by other research papers, and was downloaded 20,000 times a year between 2004 and 2007.self-published source? As of March 2011, it was Cell's most cited article.In an update published in 2011 ("Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation"), Weinberg and Hanahan proposed two new hallmarks: (1) abnormal metabolic pathways and (2) evading the immune system, and two enabling characteristics: (1) genome instability, and (2) inflammation.------13. Southside West of oxygen therapySouthside West is the area of the Southside west of Pennsylvania Avenue, stretching south and west to the Binghamton and Vestal town lines. The entire area is suburban in character with mansion-like homes on large plots strung along the rolling hills. Most of the Southside West stretches up South Mountain, also Ross Mountain. The schoolchildren attend MacArthur Elementary and, in most cases, West Middle School. Due to displacement from the flood, results for MacArthur Elementary are not available for 2013. Test scores the previous year, based on the lower state standards, showed performance to be similar to state averages. Results for West Middle School indicate 23.3-28.1% of students met the new ELA standards while 16.9-20.6% met the new math standards. Between 28.8-40.8% placed at Level 1 in ELA while 31.3-44.8 placed in Level 1 for Math------14. Medical board discipline of oxygen therapyThe Medical Board of California has disciplined Bicher three times. In 1995, the Board placed him on probation for 18 months. In 2004, in response to new charges, Bicher was placed on five years' probation. In 2006, in response to a new accusation, Bicher admitted no wrongdoing but agreed to have his probationary period extended by two years. In 2009, an Administrative Law judge granted Bicher's requested to have his probationary period terminated early.------15. Deprivation of oxygen therapyDeprivation or deprive may refer to:Deprivation index, a measure of the level of poverty in an areaForfeiture (law), deprivation or destruction of a right in consequence of the non-performance of some obligation or conditionHypoxia (medical), when the body is deprived of adequate oxygen at the tissue levelLishenets (Russian: , lit.'deprivation-person'), a person stripped of right to vote in the Soviet Union of 19181936Loss of consortium, deprivation of the benefits of a family relationship due to injuries caused by a tortfeasor------16. Givosiran of oxygen therapyGivosiran, sold under the brand name Givlaari, is for the treatment of adults with acute hepatic porphyria, a genetic disorder resulting in the buildup of toxic porphyrin molecules which are formed during the production of heme (which helps bind oxygen in the blood). Givosiran is a small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed towards 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase, an important enzyme in the production of heme.The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers it to be a first-in-class medication.------17. Breath-holding spell of oxygen therapyBreath-holding spells (BHS) are the occurrence of episodic apnea in children, possibly associated with loss of consciousness, and changes in postural tone.Breath-holding spells occur in approximately 5% of the population with equal distribution between males and females. They are most common in children between 6 and 18 months and usually not present after 5 years of age. They are unusual before 6 months of age. A positive family history can be elicited in 25% of cases. They may be confused with a seizure disorder. They are sometimes observed in response to frustration during disciplinary conflict.------18. Southside East of oxygen therapySouthside East can be defined as the area of the Southside of Binghamton east of Pennsylvania Avenue, stretching south and east to the Binghamton and Conklin town lines. The western section of South Side East is an urban neighborhood with blocks upon blocks of single to multiple-family dwellings. The eastern section is almost exclusively suburban in character in addition to containing some of the city's public housing developments which are composed of townhouses. The schoolchildren of the Southside East district attend Benjamin Franklin Elementary, then East Middle School. On the 2013 NY State English and Math Test scores for Benjamin Franklin Elementary School, depending upon grade, 4.2-10.8% of students met the new state standards in math and 7.2-9.5% met the new state standards in ELA. The majority of students placed in Level 1 for math and ELA. Results for East Middle School show 13.9-14.2% of students met the new state ELA standards and 6-7.6% met the math new state standards. Approximately half of the students placed in Level 1.
2021 06 25
read more
Know About Home Oxygen Therapy
Know About Home Oxygen Therapy
An overview of home oxygen therapyEric Schopler (February 8, 1927 July 7, 2006) was a German born American psychologist whose pioneering research into autism led to the foundation of the TEACCH programMilitary service and education of home oxygen therapyAfter graduating from high school, Schopler joined the United States Army. In 1949 Schopler earned his bachelor's degree from the University of Chicago. In 1955, he attained a graduate degree in Social Service Administration. He earned a PhD in clinical child psychology in 1964. All three degrees were attained at the University of Chicago.Career of home oxygen therapyEarly careerAfter attaining his graduate degree, Schopler worked from 1955 to 1958 as a family counselor in Rochester, New York. He moved to Rhode Island where for 2 years he worked at the Emma P. Bradley Hospital as the Acting Chief Psychiatric SocialWorker. Then in 1960 worked in Chicago at the Treatment and Research Center for Childhood Schizophrenia. He was an investigator and therapist there until 1964, the same year that he attained his doctorate from University of Chicago.University of North CarolinaSchopler joined the faculty as an associate professor of the Psychiatry department at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1964. He became the director of the Child Research Project in 1966. In collaboration with Dr. Robert Reicher, he applied his earlier research on receptor processes to the treatment of autism. Funding was provided by the National Institute of Mental Health and trials were conducted with autistic children and their parents.As a result of his work for the Child Research Project, the Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) was created in 1971 and he was made co-director in 1972. It is a "pioneering" program for assisting with autism spectrum disorder education, research and service delivery for children and adults. The TEACCH program lead to many advances in knowledge of autism. Schopler showed that most autistic children did not suffer from mental disorders, as was believed by many at the time. He also proved that parents of autistic children could be effective collaborators in the treatment and education of their children. Thanks to these TEACCH results, in 1972 Schopler's methods were rolled out statewide in North Carolina schools and special state-funded clinics.The following year he was made a professor. In 1976 he became the director or TEACCH and remained so until 1993. He became the Associate Chair for Developmental Disabilities in 1992, which he held until 1996. Overlapping his time as Director of TEACCH and as Associate Chair for Developmental Disabilities, Schopler was the Chief Psychologist from 1987 to 1999. He worked at the University of North Carolina's TEACCH program until 2005.The TEACCH methodology has been implemented internationally and, as of 2006, in North Carolina there were 9 TEACCH state funded clinics in operation.Other professional activitiesSchopler was editor for Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders from 1974 till 1997. His successor was Gary B. Mesibov. He was also on the Schizophrenia Bulletin and the Topics in Early Childhood Special Education editorial boards.He was a member of the Society for Research in Child Development, American Association on Mental Deficiency, and American Association for the Advancement of Science. He also served on the advisory boards of Autism Society of America, Autism Society of North Carolina, Linwood Children's Center (Ellicott City, Maryland) and Bitter Sweet Farms (Toledo, Ohio).RecognitionHe received the following recognition for his work:1972 - American Psychiatric Association's Gold Achievement Award for Child Research Project1985 - University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's O. Max Gardner Award for contributions to human welfare1993 - North Carolina Award for public service1997 - American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the Advancement of Knowledge and Service2005 - Autism Society of North Carolina's Lifetime Achievement Award2006 - American Psychological Foundation's Gold Medal for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology2007 - North Carolina General Assembly Joint Resolution honoring the life and memory of Eric Scholper, "a pioneer in the treatment of autismSchopler has spent his life working to determine the precise nature of autism and the most effective ways to treat it. His doctoral research on the sensory preferences of children with autism was among the first experimental studies that helped redefine the condition as a developmental disability, rather than a psychogenic condition caused by poor parenting. His subsequent research into educational treatments for autism, and his use of the parents of autistic children as co-therapists in this treatment, met with resounding success, leading to the formation of TEACCH in 1971 and the program's receipt of the American Psychiatric Association's Gold Achievement Award in 1972. University of North Carolina Health CarePublicationsMore than 200 articles and books were written by Scholper on autism spectrum disorders. This is a partial list of some of the books he's written.Eric Schopler; Robert J. Reichler. (editors). Psychopathology and Child Development: Research and Treatment. New York: Plenum Press, 1976. .mw-parser-output cite.citationfont-style:inherit.mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"""""""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registrationcolor:#555.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output code.cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none;font-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorfont-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inheritISBN0306308703Michael Rutter; Eric Schopler. (editors). Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment. New York: Plenum Press, 1978. ISBN0306310961.Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. Psychoeducational Profile - Revised (PEP-R). Pro-Ed; 1 January 1979. ISBN978-0-89079-238-4.Eric Schopler; Robert J. Reichler; Margaret D. Lansing. Individualized Assessment and Treatment for Autistic and Developmentally Disabled Children. University Park Press, 1980.Eric Schopler; Robert Reichler; Margaret D. Lansing. Teaching Strategies for Parents and Professionals: Volume II. 1980.Eric Schopler; Margaret D. Lansing; Leslie Waters. Teaching Activities for Autistic Children: Volume III. Part of the series Individualized Assessment and Treatment for Autistic and Developmentally Disabled Children. University Park Press, 1982. ISBN0839118007Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. Autism in Adolescents and Adults. Springer; 28 February 1983. ISBN978-0-306-41057-4.Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. (editors) Communication Problems in Autism. Springer; 31 May 1985 ISBN978-0-306-41859-4.Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. Social Behavior in Autism. Springer; 28 February 1986. ISBN978-0-306-42163-1.Eric Schopler; Robert J. Reichler; Barbara Rochen Renner. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS) for diagnostic screening and classification of autism. New York: Irvington, 1986. ISBN0829015884Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. Neurobiological Issues in Autism. Springer; 30 April 1987. ISBN978-0-306-42451-9.Gary Mesibov; Eric Schopler. Adolescent and Adult Psychoeducational Profile (AAPEP). Pro-Ed; 1 September 1988. ISBN978-0-89079-152-3.Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. Diagnosis and Assessment in Autism. Springer; 30 September 1988. ISBN978-0-306-42889-0.Gary B. Mesibov; Eric Schopler; Bruce Schaffer; Rhonda Landrus. Adolescent and Adult Psychoeducational Profile (AAPEP): Volume IV (1988). Pro-ed, 1989. ISBN089079152X.Linda R. Watson; Catherine Lord; Bruce Schaffer; Eric Schopler. Teaching Spontaneous Communication to Autistic and Developmentally Handicapped Children. 'New York: Irvington Publishers Inc., 1988. ISBN0829018328'Eric Schopler; Mary Elizabeth Van Bourgondien; Marie M. Bristol. (editors). Preschool Issues in Autism. New York: Plenum Press, 1993. Part of the series Current Issues in Autism. ISBN0306444402Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. Behavioral Issues in Autism. Springer; 31 March 1994 ISBN978-0-306-44600-9.Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. Learning and cognition in autism. Plenum Press; 1995. ISBN978-0-306-44871-3.Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov. (editors). Parent Survival Manual: A Guide to Crisis Resolution in Autism and Related Developmental Disorders. Springer; 30 June 1995 ISBN978-0-306-44977-2.Eric Schopler; Gary B. Mesibov; Linda J. Kunce. Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism?. Springer; 30 April 1998 ISBN978-0-306-45746-3.Eric Schopler; Nurit Yimiya; Cory Shulman; Lee M. Marcus (editors). The Research Basis for Autism Intervention. Plenum Publishing, 2001. ISBN030646585XGary B. Mesibov; Victoria Shea; Eric Schopler. The TEACCH Approach to Autism Spectrum Disorders. Springer; 7 December 2004. ISBN978-0-306-48646-3.
2021 06 25
read more
Understand Oxygen Therapy
Understand Oxygen Therapy
An overview of oxygen therapyBreath-holding spells (BHS) are the occurrence of episodic apnea in children, possibly associated with loss of consciousness, and changes in postural tone.Breath-holding spells occur in approximately 5% of the population with equal distribution between males and females. They are most common in children between 6 and 18 months and usually not present after 5 years of age. They are unusual before 6 months of age. A positive family history can be elicited in 25% of cases. They may be confused with a seizure disorder. They are sometimes observed in response to frustration during disciplinary conflict.Treatment of oxygen therapyThe most important approach is to reassure the family, because witnessing a breath-holding spell is a frightening experience for observers. There is no definitive treatment available or needed for breath-holding spells, as the child will eventually outgrow them.Some trials have demonstrated the efficacy of iron therapy, especially because although BHS can readily occur without anemia, BHS has been found to be exaggerated by the presence of anemia. Other studies have supported the use of piracetam; a 1998 study indicating that over two months piracetam reduced BHS incidence by sixty percent, twice as much as a placebo. All of these studies agree with the established medical view that a pharmacological agent is not necessary, although it may be desirable for the comfort of the parent and child.Two articles on breath-holding spells strongly suggest that parents consider having their child be tested by electrocardiogram for the rare, but real possibility that the BHS episodes are actually a symptom of prolonged QT-syndrome, a serious but treatable form of cardiac arrythmia.Diagnosis of oxygen therapyClassificationThere are four types of breath-holding spells.The most common is termed simple breath-holding spell, in which the manifestation is the holding of breath in and expiration. The usual precipitating event is a frustration or injury leading to the temporary cessation of breathing in and expiration. There is no major alteration of circulation or oxygenation and the recovery is spontaneous.The second type are the Cyanotic breath-holding spells. They are usually precipitated by anger or frustration although they may occur after a painful experience. The child cries and has forced expiration sometimes leading to cyanosis (blue in color), loss of muscle tone, and loss of consciousness. The child usually recovers within a minute or two, but some fall asleep for an hour or so. Physiologically, there is often hypocapnea (low levels of carbon dioxide) and usually hypoxia (low levels of oxygen). The events are thought to occur due to a variety of factors, including the fact that the child is not breathing, there is increased intrathoracic pressure secondary to the Valsalva maneuver, and decreased cardiac output. This eventually leads to a significant decrease of circulation to the brain and ultimately, loss of consciousness. There is no postictal phase (as is seen with seizures), no incontinence, and the child is fine in between spells. EEGs are normal in these children. There is no relationship to the subsequent development of seizures or cerebral injury as a consequence of breath holding spells.In the third type, known as Pallid breath-holding spells, the most common stimulus is a painful event. The child turns pale (as opposed to blue) and loses consciousness with little if any crying. The EEG is also normal, and again there is no postictal phase, nor incontinence. The child is usually alert within a minute or so. There may be some relationship with adulthood syncope in children with this type of spell.A fourth type, known as Complicated breath-holding spells, may simply be a more severe form of the two most common types. This type generally begins as either a cyanotic or pallid spell that then is associated with seizure like activity. An EEG taken while the child is not having a spell is still generally normal.The diagnosis of a breath-holding spell is made clinically. A good history including the sequence of events, lack of incontinence and no postictal phase, help to make an accurate diagnosis. Some families are advised to make a video recording of the events to aid diagnosis. An electrocardiogram (ECG) may rule out cardiac arrhythmia as a cause. There is some evidence that children with anemia (especially iron deficiency) may be more prone to breath-holding spells.
2021 06 25
read more
no data
One-stop medical & laboratory equipment supplier,focus on medical equipments over 10 years
Contact us

If you have a question, please contact at contact info@mecanmedical.com

+86 020 8483 5259
no data
Copyright © 2021 Guangzhou MeCan Medical Limited  | Sitemap