Knowledge Related to List of United States Supreme Court Cases by the Stone Court

This is a partial chronological list of cases decided by the United States Supreme Court during the Stone Court, the tenure of Chief Justice Harlan F. Stone from July 3, 1941 through April 22, 1946

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Commonly used medical equipment
Commonly used medical equipment
Article 1 We Are Here To Assist You Whenever You Are In Trouble Medical! The only field where you might not know when and where you will be needed. You are on duty 24*7. And your responsibility increases, especially when you own a hospital or a clinic. After all, you are a lifesaver. So, it would help if you were always ready with your stethoscope. The medical field in itself is a vast domain to work in concerning its diverse expertise. Obviously, every expert area needs various equipment to deal with its diseases. Let's have a quick look at some of its essential equipment. Stethoscope The stethoscope is very basic and well-known equipment used to listen to the internal sounds of a human or an animal body. The inner sound consists of heartbeat, intestines sound, blood flow in veins and arteries, etc. You can see this instrument to every doctor. Obstetrics Bed Obstetrics beds are excellent equipment for a gynecologist. The equipment is specially designed for maternity patients at pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum. These beds are so comfortable for the patients in labor as well. Anesthesia Machine Anesthesia machines are meant to provide a continuous supply of medical gases to maintain anesthesia levels for a patient. The modern anesthesia machine has ventilators, patient monitoring devices, and a suction unit. Patient Monitors As the name suggests, patient monitors are the devices that help doctors to keep track of patients' conditions accurately. This equipment is crucial for neonatal patients, pediatrics, and adults. Sterilizers Hospital sterilizers are meant to kill all kinds of microbial life such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, spores, etc. It is also used to prevent surgical tools and other medical instruments from keeping free from such infections. EKG/ECG Machines Electrocardiogram (EKG) machines are used to record the heart's electrical activity. It helps doctors monitor overall heart activity and other abnormalities of the patients. These and so on equipment are the essential tools in the health care profession. So they need to be accurate. Guangzhou MeCan Medical is found to be the best medical tools provider in the region, providing the instruments such as electric obstetric beds products, two crank manual hospital beds, and so other equipment in time. Find their official page @https://www.medical-hospital-equipment.com/product/p-multi-functional-electric-obstetric-bed.html, and know what they have in addition to providing to you. They have all time assistance service ship as well. Article 2 I'm a gynecologist. And, as with all the other doctors, I dreamed of having my own clinic. It was my first setup, so it needed to be the best. I have finalized the location for my chamber and taken care of the other essential equipment. Being a gynecologist, the one piece of equipment that has so much importance in our practice is an obstetric bed. After all, it helps all the would-be mothers lay down relaxed without the problem. I had ordered electric obstetrics bed products for my clinic from Guangzhou MeCan Medical. When I was practicing, I noticed much of the products from this place. So, I decided to place an order from the same site. And I found every medical equipment that I ordered from here is just excellent. Many of my patients have given feedback on the bed, saying they were comfortable with them. And it's a massive compliment for the manufacture itself. After all, being a doctor, what really matters is my patient's health and their comfort. The delivery of the equipment was done in time with the perfect packaging and no damage to the products. I'm so glad about their service and assistance available through video and emails.
Looking for a UV Light Sterilizer? a Few Good Options Under Rs 10,000
Looking for a UV Light Sterilizer? a Few Good Options Under Rs 10,000
With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic people have become more self-aware of what they touch on a day to day basis. Due to this, there has been an increase in the public demand to sanitize everything that they come in contact with, but using a liquid sanitizer or soap is not always a practical choice. UV light is such a thing that can be used to sanitize products, without having to worry about spoilage. Today we are going to take a look at the best UV-C light products that help you sanitize things that you touch.Germiscan is India's first UV-C LED-based handheld steriliser. The company claims that the device can kill up to 99.9 per cent of germs within six seconds. It is one of the most expensive UV light wands you can get at Rs 6,500, but also is one of the largest helping its users cover a lot more surface area at once than its competitors. It comes with extra protection features like tilt detection sensors and a safety switch, to avoid direct skin contact. The company claims that the device has a battery life of three hours on a single charge.Gizmobitz Portable UV Light Sterilizer is a foldable UV Light Sterilizer with a 5W output priced at Rs 1,599. The USP of the device is that it can be folded up and put inside your pocket. The company claims that the device can kill 99.9 per cent of the germs within seconds. Unlike other UV sterilizer wands, this one does not run on an in-built battery pack, instead, it uses four AAA batteries for convenience. It also runs on direct power, due to which, the company provides a complimentary 2,600mAh power bank along with the device.Also Read: Top five phone sanitizers to prevent the spread of COVID-19DailyObjects Wield-UV-C Pocket Sterilizer claims to kill up to 99.9 per cent within up to three minutes. The sterilizer is priced at Rs 2,199 and is available via Amazon and the company's own website. The company claims that the light has a lifespan of 5000-10000 hours and comes with unique features like tilt detection sensors. The wand sterilizer comes with a battery life of 100 minutes on a single charge.The Messy Corner UV Care Sterilizer case is priced at Rs 3,999 and is available on the company's official website. It allows for the user to place in personal belongings like rings, watches, mobile phone and more to give them a bath in UV-C light and disinfect them. Apart from the UV-C light disinfection, which kills 99.9 per cent of germs, the Messy Corner UV Care Sterilizer case comes with two add-ons: an aromatherapy chamber, in which you can add essential oil and make your objects smell good, and a wireless charger up top to charge up any of your devices.Also Read: UV lights are becoming the weapon of choice to kill the virusGodrej claims that its UV Case is based on current disinfection data and empirical evidence. Due to which it can kill more than 65 families of pathogens including SARS-CoV-1, the virus behind the COVID-19 pandemic. It states that the UV Case can kill 99 per cent viruses and germs from objects like cash, jewellery, mobile phones, masks, PPE Kits and more. It starts at Rs 8,999 and is available in three sizes 15L, 30L and 54L.Express Tech is now on Telegram. Click here to join our channel (@expresstechie) and stay updated with the latest tech newsdoes anyone know how phototherapy works for eczema patients?Phototherapy is the supervised use of ultraviolet (UV) light to treat skin conditions, including atopic dermatitis. Ultraviolet B (UVB), ultraviolet A (UVA), or a combination of UVB and UVA may be used during therapy. During phototherapy, you stand in a booth that contains light tubes that give off UV light. Goggles should be worn to protect your eyes during treatment. Men need to shield their genitals to avoid an increased risk of genital cancer. As your skin recovers from treatment, it should be checked frequently (at least once or twice a year) for signs of skin damage or skin cancer. Phototherapy with ultraviolet (UV) light can be an effective treatment for severe atopic dermatitis. Combined UVA and UVB light have a more beneficial effect than UVA or UVB light alone. UV light may help prevent bacterial infections, which are a particular problem in people with atopic dermatitis. Risks related to phototherapy include: Skin cancer and cancer. Exposure to UV light may result in skin cancer. The male genitals are highly susceptible to the cancer-causing effects of UV therapy. Skin damage. Exposure to UV light may lead to sunburn and skin damage. Cataracts. The risk of cataracts can be reduced by regular use of sunglasses that block UV light when outdoors. Other skin diseases getting worse. UVA produces fewer and milder short-term side effects than equal doses of UVB light. What To Think About UVB treatment requires little time (from seconds to minutes), while UVA treatment is more time-consuming (typically 20 minutes per treatment). A similar type of treatment, psoralen plus ultraviolet light therapy (PUVA) combines a type of medicine (psoralen) with ultraviolet A (UVA) light to treat atopic dermatitis. The psoralen makes the skin more sensitive to the ultraviolet light. This therapy has additional risks but enhances the effectiveness of UVA light.
Performance Qualification of High Pressure High Vaccum (HPHV) Steam Sterilizer in Pharmaceuticals
Performance Qualification of High Pressure High Vaccum (HPHV) Steam Sterilizer in Pharmaceuticals
Qualification of High Pressure High Vaccum (HPHV) Steam Sterilizer in Pharmaceuticals is done by following procedure.Remark - The vacuum leak test should be performed only when the sterilization chamber is empty, dry and at room temperature.The actual observations obtained during the vacuum leak test should be compiled in the Annexure-2 of Attachment - 1 and the rate of Vacuum drop should be calculated by using the following formula.Objective of this test is to ensure that, The pure steam supply of the High Pressure High Vacuum Steam Sterilizer does not contain non-condensable gases more than the desire level (NMT 3.5%) when measured on-line during the standard sterilization cycle.Record the observations and results in formats enclosed as AttachmentCalculate the dryness value of the steam from the following equation:Objective of this test is to ensure that the vacuum pulses applied before the sterilization hold period are sufficient to remove the entrapped air or noncondensable gases so as to facilitate rapid and even steam penetration into all parts of the load and maintaining these conditions for the specified temperature holding timeJustification for the temperature sensor location of choice- Any conduction of heat from the door which may cause temperature drop at that particular point.· Temperature spread within the range of 121.1°C to 124°C during sterilization hold period indicate that, uniform heating process which is achieved in the Loaded chamber heat penetration study is not affected by load. There could be the possibility of lag period for attaining 121.1°C during heat penetration trials as the probes are placed deep into the load any location(s) where the temperature indicator is placed, not achieving minimum sterilization temperature of 121.1°C during sterilization temperature hold period will be considered as cold spot.Justification for the temperature sensor location of choice(NOTE: The temperature sensors shall be placed in the pre determined locations with predetermined sensor numbers corresponding to the data logger channels).Justification for the temperature sensor location of choiceObjective of this test is to ensure that,· Steam condensate collected during the sterilization cycle from the sample collection port should meet the requirements for Water for Injection USP.Justification for the temperature sensor location of choiceCompile the data generated during the qualification test for complete evaluation of the system.There should be uniform penetration of heat in the load subjected for sterilization during the sterilization hold period and the temperature at each temperature mapping probe should be within the range of 121.1°C to 124°C during the complete sterilization hold period.Justification for the temperature sensor location of choiceThere should be uniform penetration of heat in the load subjected for sterilization during the sterilization hold period and the temperature at each temperature mapping probe should be within the range of 121.1°C to 124°C during the complete sterilization hold period.· Steam condensate collected during the sterilization cycle from the sample collection port should meet the requirements for Water for Injection USP.Justification for the temperature sensor location of choiceSpores as temperature is changed (10°C or mentioned in COA).The biological F0 value for biological indicator strip exposed during the sterilization can be calculated as follows.Smoke from engine after transmission service?possible tranny fluid being forced under pressure is spraying out somewhere, it may be hitting the exhaust pipe or manifold (my guess is one of the lines may not be tightened correctly after they flushed the tranny, so go back, tell them you saw a whitish cloud (that's what tranny fluid looks like when sprayed under high pressure, this may just be something simple, so go and have the shop check the lines they loosened underneath the car, or check them yourselfTroubleshooting HVAC/R systems using refrigerant superheat and subcooling from MasterflexIntroduction The refrigeration cycle Superheat and its measurement Subcooling and its measurement Trouble diagnosis Using superheat to troubleshoot Using subcooling to troublesoot Principles of the refrigeration cycle and troubleshooting summary Introduction Troubleshooting and servicing refrigeration and air conditioning systems can be a challenging process for both the entry level and experienced HVAC/R technician. Regardless of your experience, size of the equipment, or location, to troubleshoot the system it is essential that you have a solid understanding of the fundamentals of refrigeration- including the principles of superheat and subcooling. You also need to have the right tools and know-how to apply these principles to use the tool quickly and efficiently. Troubleshooting techniques often require simultaneous knowledge of temperature, pressure, voltage, and current values in a system, which means that a single-function meter wo not permit a complete analysis of the system. Frequently, multiple tools are required. This application note provides information on troubleshooting the refrigeration system while applying the principles of superheat and subcooling to HVAC/R equipment. It will also teach you the proper methods to tackle some typical troubleshooting tasks using thermometers, digital multimeters, pressure/vacuum modules, and HVAC/R accessories. Basic refrigeration principles are provided solely to illustrate how digital thermometers, multimeters, and accessories can make servicing and maintaining HVAC/R systems straightforward, fast, and accurate. The refrigeration cycle Based on the principle that heat flows naturally from warmer areas to cooler areas, the refrigeration cycle consists of seven stages: A basic vapor compression refrigeration system consists of four primary components: a metering device (e.g. a capillary tube, fixed orifice/piston, or a thermostatic expansion valve), evaporator, compressor, and condenser. Figure 1. The refrigeration system. In a typical refrigeration system, the compressor sends hot gas to the condenser. Then the condensed liquid passes through an expansion valve into the evaporator where it evaporates and collects heat from the area to be cooled. The gaseous refrigerant then enters the compressor where the compression process raises the pressure and temperature. From the compressor, the refrigerant is routed back to the condenser and the cycle repeats. (See Figure 1.) Compression energy elevates the vapor pressure to a boiling point that is below the condensing mediums' temperature. In other words, the compressor elevates the boiling point of the refrigerant to a point at which the air (or water) moving across the condenser is low enough to condense the refrigerant to a liquid. Additional passes in the condenser coil cool the liquid refrigerant below its boiling point to ensure it remains a liquid as it experiences pressure drop in its journey to the evaporator. This cooling below the boiling point is called subcooling. A metering device at the evaporator inlet acts as a "dam" to restrict flow and drop the refrigerant pressure to a new lower boiling point. This new boiling point is below the evaporator medium (air or water) temperature so that the air or water across the evaporator will cause the refrigerant to boil. After all of the refrigerant in the evaporator has boiled to a vapor, the vapor will pick up additional heat through extra passes in the evaporator. The amount of vapor temperature increase above the boiling temperature is called superheat. The compressor reduces the gas to a high pressure while simultaneously raising the temperature of the gas. The hot gas is then delivered to the condenser where it is cooled, dissipating the heat and steadily converting the gas back to a liquid state. ( Note: Liquid receivers are not typically used on refrigeration systems, which commonly rely on capillary tubes or fixed metering devices.) When the liquid under high pressure reaches the metering device, the cycle starts over. While servicing most refrigeration systems, the technician will measure the temperature and pressure to determine system performance. Close monitoring of temperature and pressure to verify proper control and operation can ensure longer system life and reduce energy consumption. Often, measuring temperatures or pressures at key points in a system can pinpoint trouble spots. Examples of such measurements follow. Superheat and its measurement In the system's evaporator, conversion of liquid to vapor involves adding heat to the liquid at its boiling temperature, commonly referred to as the saturation temperature. After all of the refrigerant has boiled to a vapor, any additional temperature increase above the boiling point is called superheat. Finding suction line superheat requires finding the suction pressure and two temperatures-the evaporator boiling temperature at a given pressure and the temperature of the refrigerant at the outlet of the evaporator on the suction line, commonly referred to as the superheat temperature/ pressure method. On newer refrigerant blends, the temperature changes during the boiling or saturation phase. This is referred to as glide. Modern refrigerants with a temperature glide of 10 F (5 C) or higher use dew point (DP) temperature. This is the temperature of the refrigerant when the last of the liquid has boiled into a vapor. Any vapor temperature increase above the dewpoint temperature is called superheat. (See Figure 2.) The best method to determine superheat using Fluke products is to use the 80PK-8 Pipe Clamp Temperature Probe and a PV350 Pressure/Vacuum Module in conjunction with a suitable Fluke digital multimeter with type K thermocouple measurement and a mV input. The pipe clamp allows pipe temperature measurements to be made more quickly and accurately because it clamps directly to the pipe without the need to add insulation or tape, as in the case of a bead thermocouple. The pressure/vacuum module allows accurate and quick pressure measurements. When measuring for superheat, remember to allow the system to run long enough for temperatures and pressures to stabilize while verifying normal airflow cross the evaporator. Using the pipe clamp or a hook-and-loop pipe probe, find the suction line temperature by attaching the probe around a bare section of the pipe, at the outlet of the evaporator. Pipe temperature can be read at the inlet of the compressor on the suction line if the pipe is less than 15' from the evaporator and there is a minimum pressure drop between the two points. (See Figure 3.) Best results are obtained when the pipe is free of oxides or other foreign material. Next, attach the pressure/vacuum module to the suction line service valve (or refrigerant service port on your manifold gauge set). Make a note of the pipe temperature and pressure. This pressure reading will be that of the boiling refrigerant inside the evaporator, assuming no abnormal restrictions exist within the suction line. Using this pressure value, find the evaporator (or dewpoint) boiling temperature from a PT chart for the refrigerant type being used. (See Figure 4, below; all pressures shown are in PSIG; Red Print Vacuum (inches of Mercury)) Subtract the boiling/ dewpoint temperature from the suction line temperature to find the superheat. The suction line temperature may also be taken by attaching a bead thermocouple to the suction line. Be careful to insulate the thermocouple and use heatconducting compound to minimize errors due to heat loss to ambient air. Subcooling and its measurement In the system's condenser, conversion of vapor to liquid involves removing heat from the refrigerant at its saturation condensing temperature. Any additional temperature decrease is called subcooling. Finding liquid line subcooling requires determining the condensing pressure and two temperatures- the condensing temperature at the measured condensing pressure and the temperature of the refrigerant at the outlet of the condenser on the liquid line. The liquid line temperature involves measuring the surface temperature of the pipe at the outlet of the condenser. (See Figure 5.) ( Note: Condensing temperature is derived from using the PT chart. On new refrigerant blends with high temperature glide, this is called the bubble point (BP) temperature. See Figure 2.) To measure subcooling with a pipe clamp, or a hook-and-loop pipe probe, allow the system to run long enough for temperatures and pressures to stabilize. Verify normal airflow and then find the liquid line temperature by clamping the pipe clamp around the liquid line. Attach the pressure/ vacuum module to a service port on the liquid line (or discharge line at the compressor if a liquid line service valve port is not available). Make a note of the liquid line temperature and pressure. Convert the liquid line pressure to temperature using a PT chart for the refrigerant type being used. The difference of the two temperatures is the subcooling value. Trouble diagnosis Data from superheat and subcooling measurements can be useful for determining various conditions within the HVAC/R system, including the amount of refrigerant charge and verifying the operating condition of the metering device. These measurements can also be used to determine the efficiency of the condenser, evaporator, and compressor. Before making conclusions from the measured data, it is important to check external conditions that influence system performance. In particular, you should inspect and verify the proper air flow in cubic feet per minute (CFM) across coil surfaces and line voltage to the compressor motor and associated electrical loads. Remember to look for obvious problems at the coil surfaces such as dirty air filters upstream of the evaporator, or leaves and outside debris restricting airflow on the condenser. Using superheat to troubleshoot The superheat value can indicate various system problems including a clogged filter drier, undercharge, overcharge, faulty metering device, restricted airflow, or improper fan motor or blower direction. Suction line superheat is a good place to start diagnosis because a low reading suggests that liquid refrigerant may be reaching the compressor. In normal operation, the refrigerant entering the compressor is sufficiently superheated above the evaporator boiling temperature to ensure the compressor draws only vapor and no liquid refrigerant. On traditional HVAC/R systems, which utilize mechanical metering devices such as a TXV or cap tube, the superheat heating will vary between 8 F to 20 F. On newer systems, which use electronic expansion valves and solid state controllers, it is possible to see the superheat setting as low as 5 F to 10 F. A low or zero superheat reading indicates that the refrigerant did not pick up enough heat in the evaporator to completely boil into a vapor. Liquid refrigerant drawn into the compressor typically causes slugging, which can damage the compressor valves and/or internal mechanical components. Additionally, liquid refrigerant in the compressor, when mixed with oil, reduces lubrication and increases wear, causing premature failure. On the other hand, if the superheat reading is excessive-above 20 F to 30 F-it indicates that the refrigerant has picked up more heat than normal, or that the evaporator is being starved of refrigerant. Possible causes of this condition include a metering device that is underfeeding, improperly adjusted, or simply broken. Additional problems with high superheat could indicate a system undercharge, a refrigerant restriction, moisture in the system, a blocked filter drier, or excessive evaporator heat loads. Using subcooling to troubleshoot An improper subcooling value can indicate various system problems including overcharge, undercharge, liquid line restriction, or insufficient condenser airflow (or water flow when using water-cooled condensers). The refrigerant is typically subcooled between 10 F to 20 F at the outlet of the condenser, however, some modern equipment may have subcooling values as low as 4 degrees in order to meet minimum efficiency standards. For example, a very low reading between zero to 10 F subcooling indicates that the refrigerant did not lose the normal amount of heat in its travel through the condenser. Possible causes for this condition include insufficient airflow over the condenser, metering device problems such as overfeeding, misadjustment, or being stuck too far open, or the system may be undercharged. Often times, the problem is simply that the condenser coil surface needs to be cleaned thoroughly to eliminate airflow restriction. Excessive subcooling means the refrigerant was cooled more than normal. Possible explanations include an overcharged system, a restriction in the metering device, misadjusted (underfeeding), or faulty head pressure control during low ambient conditions. Principles of the refrigeration cycle and troubleshooting summary The next time you are called upon to service or maintain any HVAC/R equipment, remember to be patient and apply the principles you have learned in this application note. Check the superheat and subcooling at the unit. Be sure to do a visual inspection of the equipment to verify that all coil surfaces are clean and that fans are running in the right direction. You need to have the right tools and know-how to apply these principles to use the tool as it was designed. Fluke thermometers, digital multimeters, pressure/ vacuum modules, and Fluke HVAC/R accessories will help you solve the problem and repair the equipment correctly the first time.
UVC Sterilizer  a Must-Have in the New Normal
UVC Sterilizer a Must-Have in the New Normal
Newswise - The magical ultraviolet C (UVC) sterilizing devices are proven to kill 99.99% of germs, but may pose a risk of skin cancer and cataracts, Chula professors cautioned consumers to use them carefully and by being fully informed.Humans have been known to use sunlight or UV rays to kill germs for centuries. This cultural heritage has been passed on to modern times. Scientists have expanded the use of high-energy UVC to public health applications i.e. successfully eliminate the bacteria that caused heavy outbreaks of SARS and MERS in the past."Most recently, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the "New Normal" lifestyle which requires close attention to personal hygiene and sanitation to avoid infectious diseases has made UVC increasingly important. Portable UVC devices are now available for consumers to buy in order to kill germs in the air, water, food, money, coins, banknotes, masks, etc.", said Dr. Thitithip Tippayamontri, Department of Radiological Technology and Medical Physics, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University in cautioning the public about the use of UVC.Dr. Thitithip Tippayamontri, Department of Radiological Technology and Medical Physics, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn UniversityUVC devices have been used in hospitals and industries to disinfect food and ventilation systems. Lately, the devices have started to be used in everyday life, the use of which may sometimes be taken for granted, e.g. to sterilize cutleries in cafeterias or banknotes. As the COVID-19 pandemic is still looming, sterilization devices have become hot items on everybody's list. As a result, an increasing number of UVC devices are being produced and scaled down to fit domestic use so that people can own them, such as a UVC sterilizer box that can be used in households with toddlers, ailing people, people with allergies, or those who need extra clean surroundings. There are also portable UVC LED sterilizing wands that people can carry around with them to kill airborne germs, germs in food, banknotes, and other items.Where does UVC come from?There are several types of both visible and invisible UV rays of various shades and intensity. UVA with a wavelength between 315-400 nanometers covers most areas of the atmosphere. UVB has a wavelength between 280-315 nanometers, while UVC with the shortest wavelength between 100-280 nanometers gives out the most energy and can powerfully annihilate particles and kill 99.99% of germs. UVC cannot penetrate through the atmosphere and get absorbed by the ozone layer.Therefore, the UV rays that we use for sterilization are synthesized by using the familiar blue, UV light bulbs.Through the Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) process, the blue UV light shines the UVC rays on objects suspected to have germs. The energy of the rays will penetrate through to the germs' DNA and RNA, destroy them, stop them from multiplying and die eventually.The Benefits of UVC devices compared to other means of sterilizationThe benefits of irradiation are that it does not take long, can be used as often as desired, is inexpensive, easy to use, and will not ruin the objects' surface, or leave any residuals making this method better than using alcohol, or disinfectant. Moreover, using it on face masks will not destroy the masks' fiber which makes it ideal for sanitizing things needed to be reused.Cautions about the use of irradiation devicesSince this type of irradiation device releases such highly destructive energy, its usage requires extreme caution not to let the radiation touch the skin because of the danger it poses that can cause cancer. Also, do not stare at the rays because it is harmful to the eyes, and can cause cataracts. Using UVGI devices requires proper protection against radiation exposure.Portable UVGI devices are not recommended at this time because they need to be kept under proper cover to prevent adverse effects. There may be better designs for portability in the future.The areas suitable for UVGI devices are public areas that house large crowds for a long duration such as hospitals, classrooms, cinemas, auditoriums, sky trains, public restrooms, offices, pantries, or cafeterias. UVC lights can be installed in the HVAC system, for instance.How to choose appropriate and safe UVGI devicesUVGI releases the radiation like in the oven, so if it is to be used in a room, dimensions should be considered to calculate the right wattage. The room should have ample space and with no blind spots from corners or obstructing objects to ensure effective irradiation. Moreover, make sure to choose the brands that have passed trustworthy product standards, e.g. CE, RoHS to ensure that they can kill 99.9% of the germs.What are the things I should keep in mind if I'm attending UVCE as a fresher?Here are some advices :Keep the teachers close but your attenders closer.Pigeons never forget and they have gangs. Never mistreat them. I did a mistake and they have never forgotten to poop on my head and bike over the 4 years.Be nice with the security guards and attenders. They know more about the college than you.The canteen might be one of the worst but the person inside is one of the best you will ever meet.Always look at the roof before sitting somewhere. If you are having classes at LC do not sit next to the window. (Especially if people are playing cricket)The amphitheatre is a football court, cricket ground, dance floor, park, restaurant, etc.Explore KR Market, National Market, Avenue road, Sp road, etcAlways remember you are sitting right at the centre of the city. Vidhan soudha, Cubbon park, UB City might be a common sight for you but there are thousands of people who come all around the world to see these places .Worried about the canteen? There are 11 other canteens within 150m circle
How to Use a Bottle Sterilizer
How to Use a Bottle Sterilizer
Bottle sterilizers can provide an extra degree of sterilization for your baby's bottles beyond what you can get with soap and hot water. Weekly bottle sterilization is recommended for babies under the age of 1. Electric sterilizers are efficient, easy to use, and often perform other functions, like drying, deodorizing, and warming your bottles. Microwave sterilizers work very fast and do not require outlets or counter space. Cold water sterilizers are great if you are traveling or do not have access to electricity. Choose the type of sterilizer you want, and learn how to operate it correctly.(PDF) Evaluation of Dimensional Changes of 3D Printed Models After Sterilization: A Pilot StudyAvailable via license: CC BY 4.0 Content may be subject to copyright. Evaluation of Dimensional Changes of 3D Printed Models After OMFS IMPATH research group, Department of Imaging & Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven & Oral and To assess the effect of two of the most commonly used sterilization techniques on 3D printed clinical objects. The two sterilization methods used in our hospital and investigated in this paper are: Steam heat and Gas plasma. Three objects were printed and tested in this study: a tooth replica, an orthognathic final splint, a surgical cutting guide for the purpose of mandible reconstruction. For each of the 3 objects, 4 copies were made: one original STL object, one copy of the object pre-sterilization, one copy of post-steam heat sterilization, and one copy of post-gas plasma sterilization. Each printed object was scanned using a high resolution CBCT protocol and the compared (morphologically and volumetrically). At the level of volumetric changes, no difference was found between pre and post-sterilization for both methods evaluated. As for the morphological changes, only differences were noticed with the orthognathic splint object indicating deformation of the printed splints after sterilization. Larger differences were observed with heat sterilization, making it less reliable. Sterilization of dental objects to be used in a clinical setting may lead to deformation of the printed model, especially for heat sterilization. Further investigations are needed to confirm these findings. Additive manufacturing, rapid prototyping or three-dimensional (3D) printing is a growing technology which is changing the manufacturing industry . The most common techniques are Stereolithography (SLA), Selective Laser (LOM). Recent developments in medical imaging along with the developments in Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) allowed the fast rise of 3D printing in medicine. Applications of 3D printing in the medical field vary from treatment planning, surgical guides, teaching models, educational tools to printing scaffolds for tissue engineering and direct printing of tissues and organs . The fields of * Address correspondence to this author at The OMFS IMPATH research group, Department of Imaging & Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, KU Evaluation of Dimensional Changes of 3D Printed Models The Open Dentistry Journal, 2018, Volume 12 dentistry and maxillofacial surgery are also benefiting from 3D printing used in orthognathic surgery, implantology, These various clinical applications made the sterilization of the printed prototypes mandatory for their use intraoperatively. Methods used for instrument sterilization in surgical care should be reliable, practical and safe for the instruments. The main two categories are sterilization with heat and sterilization with gas . The topic of sterilization of 3D printed objects for the purpose of use in the operation theatre is barely addressed , while sterilization of titanium in dental implants have been investigated . The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two of the most commonly used sterilization techniques on 3D The two sterilization methods used in our hospital and investigated in this paper were: Steam heat and Gas plasma. Steam heat also known as autoclave is a device used to sterilize equipment by subjecting them to high pressure saturated steam at 121C (or higher) for around 15-20 minutes depending on the size of the load and the contents. For this study, the temperature was set to 134C and the total duration of the cycle (including heating and cooling down) Sterilization with gas. Specific gases exert a lethal action on bacteria which destroys enzymes and other vital biomechanical structures. For sterilization, Ethylene Oxide (EtO) is the most commonly used but is highly flammable, needs special equipment and has a lengthy procedure to reduce tissue toxicity . On the other hand, gas plasma sterilization is recommended to materials sensitive to temperature, humidity and which do not comply for EtO sterilization can be sterilized using gas plasma (vaporized hydrogen peroxide, VHP). It is a relatively new option that can provide low heat sterility cycles with none of the off-gassing concerns present with EtO. For this study, the temperature was set to 55C and the total cycle duration was 50 minutes. Three objects were printed and tested in this study: An orthognathic final splint representing the procedure of orthognathic surgery as described by Shaheen A surgical cutting guide for the purpose of mandible reconstruction . Each object was selected to cover the different applications in oral and maxillofacial surgeries and was provided in Stereolithography (STL) format. Each object was printed twice in biocompatible material as it is the case in clinical practice using the PolyJet technology of Objet Connex 350 (Stratasys, Eden Prairie, MN USA) with layer thickness of 30m. PolyJet 3D printing works similarly to inkjet printing, but instead of jetting drops of ink onto paper, PolyJet 3D printers jet layers of curable liquid photopolymer onto a build tray which are instantly cured with ultra violet light. Fine layers accumulate on the build tray to create one or several 3D models or parts . Fig. ( ) shows the original objects Each copy was scanned with a Cone Beam Computer Tomography (CBCT) using a high resolution protocol intended for objects and not for patients with the following acquisition settings; system: Planmeca Promax 3D Max, Fig. (1). The original objects in STL format: Orthognathic splint, surgical guide and TAT. One copy of each object was sterilized using autoclave and the other copy of each object was sterilized using gas plasma. After sterilization, each object was scanned using the same CBCT protocol as pre-sterilization, forming 3 groups: TAT group, splint group and surgical guide group. Within each group, there are 4 copies: the original STL object, one pre-sterilization, one post-sterilization heat and one post-sterilization gas. Evaluation of Dimensional Changes of 3D Printed Models The Open Dentistry Journal, 2018, Volume 12 The DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) images of each scan were exported from the CBCT and imported into Mimics Medical 19.0 (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The same threshold value was used to standardize the segmentation procedure for all objects to construct 3D objects which were exported from the software as STL files. These files were then imported into the 3-matic 11.0 software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium) for further For each group, the pre-sterilization object was registered to the original object (STL used for printing) using surface based registration. Then each post-sterilization copy was registered to the registered pre-sterilization object. Fig. ( ) shows the example of TAT group. Fig. (3). The TAT group: original STL, pre-sterilization, post-sterilization heat, post-sterilization gas and all objects registered to the We report on the volume of each object, but for more accurate morphological assessment, part comparison analysis was used. The part comparison analysis is also known as color distance map where the distance is calculated at each point on the surface of an object and the corresponding point at the surface of another object. The mean, standard deviation and Root Mean Square (R,M,S) were reported between the following: Pre-sterilization and the original object: to assess the deviation of the printing and scanning procedures from the Post-sterilization heat and the pre-sterilization object: to assess the deviations resulting from the autoclave Post-sterilization gas and the pre-sterilization object: to assess the deviations resulting from the gas plasma Table shows the results of the volume per group and the percentage change ( indicates an increase and indicates a decrease in volume). For the accuracy test of the printing and the scanning procedures, the percentage change was between 0% to 1.8% increase in volume indicating a high accurate procedure. As for the accuracy of the heat sterilization, the percentage change in volume ranged from -0.6% to 1.5%. For the gas sterilization, the volume percent change ranged from 0.6% to 0.9% indicating that for both methods no significant change was reported. Table 1. Results of the volumetric assessment for the TAT, splint and the surgical guide groups. Table shows the results of the part comparison analysis. The differences reported were all below 0.1mm. The results of the splint group was not reported due to the failure of complete registration of both post-sterilized objects to the pre-sterilized one as shown in Fig. ( ). Therefore, the registration was repeated and based on the middle part of the splint instead of a global surface registration to allow the assessment of deformation at the side parts. Table 2. Results of the morphological assessment for the TAT and the surgical guide groups. Fig. (4). The outcome of the registration per group. Evaluation of Dimensional Changes of 3D Printed Models The Open Dentistry Journal, 2018, Volume 12 In order to assess the changes occurred post-sterilization for the splint object, another method was used as shown in Fig. ( ). A curve was drawn on the pre-sterilized splint and 7 landmarks (points) were indicated. The same landmarks were indicated on the corresponding positions once on the post-sterilization heat splint and another on the post- sterilization gas splint. The distances error were measured and presented in Table . Table 3. The distances between the 7 landmarks on post-sterilized heat and gas splints to the original curve respectively. Fig. (5). A curve drawn on the pre-sterilized splint and 7 landmarks (points) indicated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of sterilization methods used in our hospital set-up on 3D printed surgical objects. The two most commonly used sterilization techniques are steam heat (autoclave) and gas plasma which were investigated in this paper. Whether the sterilization has an effect on 3D printed object or not is a topic not really addressed. Surgical guides especially in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery are extensively used due to the presence of several CAD/CAM tools and low cost 3D printers. In this paper, we focused on the PolyJet technology with the Objet Connex 3D printer (the biocompatible material) since it has higher accuracy when compared to other technologies and has been evaluated for biocompatibility in accordance with the industrial standard. The results in this study showed that the percentage changes in volumes are negligible and were up to 1.5% increase in volume. As for the morphological assessment, the deformity of the objects after sterilization was also minor for the TAT and the surgical guide with a maximum mean error of 0.014mm. Although the volume changes for the splint objects after both the heat and gas sterilization was negligible, but the registration procedure failed due to the noticeable deformity in the objects after sterilization as shown in Fig. ( ). Such deformities made the splints unusable and inaccurate for the operation. Further investigations showed that the curvature of the splints was decreased compared to the pre-sterilization situation with larger differences at the borders (points 1 and 7) with heat sterilization compared to gas sterilization (Table ). The heat sterilization had a maximum difference of 1.7mm while the gas sterilization had a These findings indicate the necessity of further investigations on the effect of sterilization especially the heat on different 3D printing technologies and materials used as surgical guides. Furthermore, these findings are yet to be confirmed since they are not conclusive due to the small sample size, therefore, for future work we would like to enlarge the sample size and include different printing technologies with complex shapes and sizes. The effect of heat and gas plasma sterilization on 3D printed surgical objects with biocompatible photopolymer material was investigated. At the level of volumetric changes, no difference was found between pre and post- sterilization for both methods evaluated. As for the morphological changes, only differences were noticed with the orthognathic splint object indicating deformity of the splints after sterilization. Larger differences were observed with the heat sterilization, making it less reliable. Further investigations are needed to confirm these findings. No human or animal were used in this study. The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise. Marro A, Bandukwala T, Mak W. Three-dimensional printing and medical imaging: A review of the methods and applications. Curr Probl Mehra P, Miner J, D'Innocenzo R, Nadershah M. Use of 3-d stereolithographic models in oral and maxillofacial surgery. J Maxillofac Oral Vezeau PJ, Koorbusch GF, Draughn RA, Keller JC. Effects of multiple sterilization on surface characteristics and biologic responses Khalil W, EzEldeen M, Van De Casteele E, Validation of cone beam computed tomography-based tooth printing using different three- Evaluation of Dimensional Changes of 3D Printed Models The Open Dentistry Journal, 2018, Volume 12 Shaheen E, Sun Y, Jacobs R, Politis C. Three-dimensional printed final occlusal splint for orthognathic surgery: Design and validation. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
How to Care for Your Autoclave Or Steam Sterilizer
How to Care for Your Autoclave Or Steam Sterilizer
Caring for your autoclave is very important and can be easily overlooked. We often see this step neglected which can cause high and frequent repair costs. A lack of maintenance will also lead to deterioration and excessive wear of the contents being sterilized. Let's go over a few points to make caring for your autoclave or steam sterilizer easier for you.1) It is very important that the contents being sterilized are clean and free from debris, blood and organic tissue. Otherwise the instruments or sterilizer may become damaged. We strongly recommend using an ultrasonic cleaner such as the DuraSonic to help with the cleaning process.2) Inspect the door gasket for excessive wear or cracking. The gasket and mating surface should be cleaned with a mild detergent such as Spray Nine or Fantastik using a cloth or sponge.3) When running a sterilization cycle it is very important to not overload the sterilizer trays because it will cause inadequate sterilization and drying.4) Always be sure to use a Class 5 Chemical Integrator Test Strip with every cycle for immediate reassurance that the correct parameters have been met to achieve sterilization.1) Keeping your autoclave clean is one of the most important points. Be sure to clean the trays and rack with a Non-Scratch Scour Pad using a mild non-abrasive detergent such as Bon Ami . Always rinse the instrument well and be sure to NOT USE steel wool, wire brush, or bleach.2) Completely drain the water from the reservoir and replenish with fresh distilled water.3) It is strongly recommended to perform a biological live spore test weekly or at least monthly to ensure sterilization.1) Clean the chamber and flush lines using the recommended autoclave cleaner following the cleaner's instructions. Normally you will need 2 gallons of distilled water to complete this job.2) Inspect the cord and plug for overheating and excessive wear-this could be a fire hazard. If this is the case, the power cord should be replaced. Some power cords are quick disconnect and easily replaced. If not, the replacement will need to be done by a certified repair company.On a yearly basis you should have your autoclave inspected, cleaned thoroughly, tested and calibrated. This is typically referred to as a PM or Preventative Maintenance Service. This service would normally include the replacement of wear & tear parts such as gaskets, seals and filters. This will ensure your sterilizer is running properly and remaining in good working order. If your autoclave is used very heavily we would recommend this service bi-annually.Our certified technicians at Duraline Systems can perform this preventative maintenance in the shop or on-site depending on your location. Read More about Autoclave Service with Duraline Systems or call toll free 1-877-561-0500 to speak with a certified autoclave technician today. We work with all major brands Tuttnauer, Midmark Ritter, Scican Statim, Pelton and Crane, Cox, CPAC, Sterident, Dentronix and more. Duraline even offers emergency loaners.Without a doubt, following these guidelines will extend the life of your autoclave and instruments. You can also refer to your operator's manual for more details. For your convenience, we can provide you with a free "caring for your autoclave" poster that you can keep nearby for easy reference!how to sterilize piercing tools?you are courting an infection.... but aside from that - you have to boil them and wipe them down with alcohol. wear glovesWhat's the best way to sterilize body jewelry.?this is goingto sound weird but on the jewlery itself uses saline slaution right after u put it in rubbing ahclHow do I sterilize an apple tree?I understand where you are coming from. I've had some real trouble with trying to make my peanut plants housebroken. Eventually I found that it was my own urine, so I had nothing to worry about. But what I recommend is that you either show some videos to your tree, or more preferably, play a tape discussing the subject of abstinence. Another method is one I have listed below, where you could get a condom for your tree. If he simply must have sex, it is better safe than sorry.Do computer parts cause sterility?There are a lot of precious and rare materials inside computers, so it may be possible
Know About Sterilizer
Know About Sterilizer
An Introduction to sterilizerSchlegelberger was born into a Protestant salesman's family in Knigsberg. He graduated from the University of Knigsberg or according to documents from his trial the University of Leipzig in 1899 attaining the degree of Doctor of Law. In 1901 Schlegelberger passed the state law examination and became a court Assessor at the Knigsberg local court. In 1904 he became a judge at the State Court in Lyck (now Ek). In early May 1908, he went to the Berlin State Court and in the same year was appointed assistant judge at the Berlin Court of Appeals (Kammergericht). In 1914 he was appointed to the Kammergericht Council (Kammergerichtsrat) in Berlin, where he stayed until 1918.On 1 April 1918 Schlegelberger became an associate at the Reich Justice Office. On 1 October of that year, he was appointed to the Secret Government Court and Executive Council. In 1927, he was appointed as Ministerial Director in the RMJ. Schlegelberger had been teaching in the Faculty of Law at the University of Berlin as an honorary professor since 1922. On 10 October 1931 Schlegelberger was appointed State Secretary in the Reich Ministry of Justice under Justice Minister Franz Grtner and kept this job until Grtner's death in 1941. On 30 January 1938 Schlegelberger joined the Nazi Party on Adolf Hitler's orders.In the Nazi Party of sterilizerAmong Schlegelberger's many works in this time was a bill for the introduction of a new national currency which was supposed to end the hyperinflation to which the Reichsmark was prone. After Franz Grtner's death in 1941, Schlegelberger became provisional Reich Minister of Justice for the years 1941 and 1942, followed then by Otto Thierack. During his time in office the number of death sentences rose sharply. He authored the bills such as the so-called Poland Penal Law Provision (Polenstrafrechtsverordnung) under which Poles were executed for tearing down German posters. Schlegelberger's attitude towards his job may be best encapsulated in a letter to Reich Minister and Chief of the Reich Chancellery Hans Heinrich Lammers:Dear Reich Minister Dr. Lammers,Upon the Fhrer-order of 24 October 1941 forwarded to me through Mr. State Minister and Chief of the Fhrer's and Reich Chancellor's Presidial Chancellery, I have handed the Jew Markus Luftglass, sentenced to 2 years in prison by the Special Court in Katowice, over to the Gestapo for execution.Heil Hitler!Yourmost obedient SchlegelbergerHowever, in a letter to Hans Heinrich Lammers dated 5 April 1942, Schlegelberger suggested some half-Jews be "spared" and given the choice between "evacuation" or sterilization:The measures for the final solution of the Jewish question should extend only to full Jews and descendants of mixed marriages of the first degree, but should not apply to descendants of mixed marriages of the second degree.With regard to the treatment of Jewish descendants of mixed marriages of the first degree, I agree with the conception of the Reich Minister of the Interior which he expressed in his letter of 16 February 1942, to the effect that the prevention of propagation of these descendants of mixed marriages is to be preferred to their being thrown in with the Jews and evacuated. It follows therefrom that the evacuation of those half-Jews who are no more capable of propagation is obviated from the beginning. There is no national interest in dissolving the marriage between such half-Jews and a full-blooded German.Those half-Jews who are capable of propagation should be given the choice to submit to sterilization or to be evacuated in the same manner as Jews.Upon his retirement from the position on 20 August 1942, Hitler gave Schlegelberger an endowment of RM 100,000; in 1944, Hitler allowed him to buy an estate with the money, something that only agricultural experts were entitled to under the rules in force at the time. This would later weigh against him at Nuremberg, for it showed that Hitler thought highly of Schlegelberger.In the Nazi Party of sterilizerAmong Schlegelberger's many works in this time was a bill for the introduction of a new national currency which was supposed to end the hyperinflation to which the Reichsmark was prone. After Franz Grtner's death in 1941, Schlegelberger became provisional Reich Minister of Justice for the years 1941 and 1942, followed then by Otto Thierack. During his time in office the number of death sentences rose sharply. He authored the bills such as the so-called Poland Penal Law Provision (Polenstrafrechtsverordnung) under which Poles were executed for tearing down German posters. Schlegelberger's attitude towards his job may be best encapsulated in a letter to Reich Minister and Chief of the Reich Chancellery Hans Heinrich Lammers:Dear Reich Minister Dr. Lammers,Upon the Fhrer-order of 24 October 1941 forwarded to me through Mr. State Minister and Chief of the Fhrer's and Reich Chancellor's Presidial Chancellery, I have handed the Jew Markus Luftglass, sentenced to 2 years in prison by the Special Court in Katowice, over to the Gestapo for execution.Heil Hitler!Yourmost obedient SchlegelbergerHowever, in a letter to Hans Heinrich Lammers dated 5 April 1942, Schlegelberger suggested some half-Jews be "spared" and given the choice between "evacuation" or sterilization:The measures for the final solution of the Jewish question should extend only to full Jews and descendants of mixed marriages of the first degree, but should not apply to descendants of mixed marriages of the second degree.With regard to the treatment of Jewish descendants of mixed marriages of the first degree, I agree with the conception of the Reich Minister of the Interior which he expressed in his letter of 16 February 1942, to the effect that the prevention of propagation of these descendants of mixed marriages is to be preferred to their being thrown in with the Jews and evacuated. It follows therefrom that the evacuation of those half-Jews who are no more capable of propagation is obviated from the beginning. There is no national interest in dissolving the marriage between such half-Jews and a full-blooded German.Those half-Jews who are capable of propagation should be given the choice to submit to sterilization or to be evacuated in the same manner as Jews.Upon his retirement from the position on 20 August 1942, Hitler gave Schlegelberger an endowment of RM 100,000; in 1944, Hitler allowed him to buy an estate with the money, something that only agricultural experts were entitled to under the rules in force at the time. This would later weigh against him at Nuremberg, for it showed that Hitler thought highly of Schlegelberger.
Liner Ponds and Lawsuits
Liner Ponds and Lawsuits
For thirty years I have been designing and constructing waterfalls and ponds the professional way, using 3500 psi concrete reinforced with rebar and coated with an industrial grade concrete sealer. With over 2,000 projects to date, not one has cracked or leaked. Approximately fifteen years ago, Greg Whitstock of Aquascape Company decided to capitalize on the use of rubber sheeting, a material used to cover flat roofs. He changed the name of "roof liner" to "pond liner" and built a pond in his back yard. He tells the story that he had a cement pond that continually cracked and leaked, so he pulled it out and replaced the cement with this rubber material. To this day, he instructs his dealers and contractors to tell their prospective clients that concrete ponds crack and leak and cost more to build, and that liner ponds are warranted for twenty to thirty years. Sometimes telling a half truth is the same as telling a lie. I have ripped out many defective concrete ponds and replaced them with properly installed concrete, constructed with rebar, not with rubber liners as Aquascape does. Why? Because the concrete ponds I replaced were poorly constructed, which is why they cracked. Some were made with mortar mix and chicken wire, or concrete without reinforcement or concrete that contained "cold joints" from pouring the concrete over a period of several days. Plus, some were made with improper proportions of cement and gravel. If 3500 psi concrete is used with stealth fiber mix added and used with rebar eight to ten inches on center, it will never crack, not even from frost or freezing. On the other hand, what the liner guys will purposely fail to tell you is that the twenty-year warranty for a liner is only against factory defects. What they will not tell you is that liners are vulnerable to many different elements. Last year I got a call from a client who told me they were buying a home in Rancho Santa Fe, California, and they needed me to look at a waterfall and pond that leaked. They told me that the owners had paid a pond liner company $276,000 to build this water feature. The waterfall measured ten feet wide and fifty feet high, consisting of boulders that weighed between one and five tons each. In less than two months it began leaking and got increasingly worse over the next five to six months. They called the contractor and he came out and did an investigation and pointed out the rat and gopher holes that had been burrowed out at the entrances in the outer bordering rocks. He then explained that the warranty only covered factory defects, not holes made by rodents. My clients called another liner company to fix the leaks. Because it would be too expensive to remove all the boulders and rocks to examine the liner, they simply mixed up a sloppy batch of Thoroseal and painted around every rock in the falls. Talk about ugly! They charged the homeowner $75,000 and within weeks it was leaking again. But they couldn't get the company to come back. I wonder why? When they had told me all this, my recommendation to them was to remove all the boulders and create a concrete shell reinforced by rebar. I made the waterfall wider and taller and added a pond with a large tulip fountain at the top. I made the pond at the bottom twice as wide and doubled its length. In addition, I replaced their 2-hp pump with five 3-hp high-efficiency pumps. Plus, I added a 200-watt ultraviolet sterilizer light, a 6000-gallon pressure bead filter, fifty-six 20-watt spot and submersible lights, and an electronic Aquafill auto-level control system. All this was added for $200,000, a full $76,000 less than the liner guy. Now the homeowners have a waterfall and ponds that will last for decades and require minimal maintenance. What's more, all the rocks and boulders are mortared in place so that, unlike liners, there is no danger of them moving when walked on. Much of my work over the last 25 years has been replacing leaky liner ponds with concrete, rebar and rocks. And every one of them won their lawsuits against the liner pond contractors, primarily because of their deceptive sales practices. If you are a liner guy, why not start doing it the professional way instead of using shortcuts, and inferior materials and components... the "get rich quick" approach. If you are just looking to , now you know how: reinforced concrete.
Knowledge Related to Arthur Kleps
Knowledge Related to Arthur Kleps
Arthur John Kleps (April 17, 1928 July 17, 1999) was a psychologist turned drug legalization advocate whose Neo-American Church defended use of marijuana and hallucinogens such as LSD and peyote for spiritual enlightenment and exploration• Other Related Knowledge of sterilizerTimothy Ray Brown: the 2008 cured Berlin patient of sterilizerThe most famous Berlin patient is Timothy Ray Brown. He is originally from Seattle, Washington. He was diagnosed with HIV in 1995 and began antiretroviral therapy. In 2006, Brown was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). His physician, Dr. Gero Htter, at Charit Hospital in Berlin, arranged for him to receive a hematopoietic stem cell transplant from a donor with the "delta32" mutation on the CCR5 receptor. This mutation, found at relatively high frequencies in Northern Europeans (16%), results in a mutated CCR5 protein. The majority of HIV cannot enter a human cell without a functional CCR5 gene. An exception to this is a small minority of viruses that use alternate receptors, such as CXCR4 or CCR2. Those individuals who are homozygous for the CCR5 mutation are resistant to HIV and rarely progress to AIDS. Brown received two stem cell transplants from one donor homozygous for the delta32 mutation: one in 2007 and one in 2008. Brown stopped taking his antiretroviral medication on the day of his first transplant. Three months after the first stem cell transplant, levels of HIV rapidly plummeted to undetectable levels while his CD4 T cell count increased. In addition, blood and tissue samples from areas of the body where HIV is known to hide were tested. The results were published in the New England Journal of Medicine. As of 2011, Brown remains off antiretroviral therapy and is considered cured, although some debate exists whether there is no trace of the virus in his body (a "sterilizing" cure) or whether he simply no longer needs treatment (a "functional" cure)..------General jurisdiction and judicial immunity of sterilizerOne significant effect of the classification of a court is the liability that a judge from that court might face for stepping beyond the bounds of that court. Judges are able to claim judicial immunity for acts that are not completely beyond their jurisdiction. For example, if a probate judge were to sentence a person to jail, that judge would not have immunity and could be sued because a probate judge has no jurisdiction to effect a criminal sentence. However, a judge in a court of general jurisdiction who happened to be overseeing a probate case would be immune from suit for sending a party to jail, because handing down a criminal sentence is not completely beyond the jurisdiction of such a judge.In the United States, this principle was established by the Supreme Court in Stump v. Sparkman, 435 U.S. 349 (1978). The Court found in that case that an Indiana judge was immune from a suit brought by a young woman whom the judge had ordered to be sterilized, at the behest of the woman's mother. Because the Indiana court was a court of general jurisdiction, and no law of Indiana expressly prohibited the judge from issuing such an order, the Supreme Court found that the order was not completely beyond the jurisdiction of that judge.------Company history of sterilizerWorldview Pictures was founded by Stephen Trombley in 1989. The company was headquartered in London, England until 2003, when it moved its operations to New York City. The company's first theatrical release was The Execution Protocol (1992), which The New York Times compared to Frederick Wiseman's Titicut Follies .It won Germany's top prize the Adolf Grimme Award along with many other honors. In 1994 Bruce Eadie joined Worldview as producer and managing director. Together with Trombley, he was responsible for over a dozen films and television series in the period 19942001. Their first collaboration was The Lynchburg Story (1993), on the forced sterilization of 8,000 children at a Virginia state facility. This was followed by Drancy: A Concentration Camp in Paris 1941-1944, an account of French government complicity in the deportation of 72,500 Jews to Nazi death camps. Raising Hell (1995) is an account of the life of A. J. Bannister, a Missouri death row inmate who had featured in The Execution Protocol. Research gathered in the making of the film led to a last-minute stay of execution. Nuremberg (1996) marked the 50th anniversary of the Nuremberg Trials. Told exclusively from the points of view of participants in the trials, it won an Emmy for Outstanding Historical Programming in 1997. Also in 1997 War & Civilization, an 8-part series narrated by Walter Cronkite, aired on The Leaning Channel. Martin Sheen narrated Worldview Pictures 2001 feature, Stockpile: The New Nuclear Menace, which is the result of two years of research inside the fence at Los Alamos Nuclear Laboratory and the Russian nuclear city of Arzamas-16 (Sarov). In 2008 Worldview moved into theatrical production with the musical review Adirondack Awakening. In 2010 it released the DVD Spitzer Uncut, an interview with Stephen Trombley that explores the childhood, education, and political career of the former governor of New York------Publications of sterilizerIn his publications, Lanz mixed vlkisch and anti-semitic ideas with Aryanism, racism and esotericism. The following is a partial list of Lanz's publications:Katholizismus wider Jesuitismus ("Catholicism versus Jesuitism"), Frankfurt, 1903Anthropozoon biblicum, in Vjschr. fr Bibelkunde 1, 1903/1904Zur Theologie der gotischen Bibel ("Regarding the Theology of the Gothic Bible") in Vjschr. fr Bibelkunde 1, 1903/1904Theozoologie oder die Kunde von den Sodoms-fflingen und dem Gtter-Elektron ("Theozoology, or the Account of the Sodomite Apelings and the Divine Electron"), Vienna, (1905)Das Breve "Dominus ac redemptor noster", Frankfurt, 1905Der Taxilschwindel. Ein welthistorischer Ulk, Frankfurt, 1905Ostara (magazine), 89 or 100 issues, Rodaun and Mdling, 190517 (38 issues were republished in Vienna between 1926 and 1931)Kraus und das Rassenproblem ("Kraus and the Race Problem"), in Der Brenner 4, 1913/1914Weltende und Weltwende, ("World's End and World's Turn"), Lorch, 1923Grundriss der ariosophischen Geheimlehre ("Outline of the Ariosophic Secret Teachings"), Oestrich, 1925Der Weltkrieg als Rassenkampf der Dunklen gegen die Blonden ("The World War as a Race Fight Between the Dark and the Blondes"), Vienna, 1927Bibliomystikon oder die Geheimbibel der Eingeweihten ("Bibliomystikon, or the Secret Bible of the Initiated"), 10 volumes, Pforzheim and elsewhere, 19291934Praktisch-empirisches Handbuch der ariosophischen Astrologie ("Practical-empirical Handbook of Ariosophic Astrology"), Dsseldorf, 192634Jakob Lorber. Das grsste ariosophische Medium der Neuzeit, Dsseldorf, 1926, 4 Bnden.------Work with Theozoology of sterilizerIn 1905, he published his book Theozologie oder die Kunde von den Sodoms-fflingen und dem Gtter-Elektron (Theozoology, or the Science of the Sodomite-Apelings and the Divine Electron) in which he advocated sterilization of the sick and the "lower races" as well as forced labour for "castrated chandals", and glorified the "Aryan race" as "Gottmenschen" ("god-men"). Lanz justified his esoteric racial ideology by attempting to give it a Biblical foundation; according to him, Eve, whom he described as initially being divine, involved herself with a demon and gave birth to the "lower races" in the process. Furthermore, he claimed that this led to blonde women being attracted primarily to "dark men", something that only could be stopped by "racial demixing" so that the "Aryan-Christian master humans" could "once again rule the dark-skinned beastmen" and ultimately achieve divinity. A copy of this book was sent to Swedish poet August Strindberg, from whom Lanz received an enthusiastic reply in which he was described as a "prophetic voice".One year later, in 1905, he founded the magazine Ostara, Briefbcherei der Blonden und Mannesrechtler, of which he became the sole author and editor in 1908. Lanz himself claimed to have up to 100,000 subscribers, but it is generally agreed that this figure is grossly exaggerated. Readers of this publication included Adolf Hitler, Dietrich Eckart and the British Field Marshal Herbert Kitchener among others. Lanz claimed he was visited by the young Hitler in 1909, whom he supplied with two missing issues of the magazine.As a student of Guido von List, Lanz further expanded his theories; other influences included Otto Weininger, of whom Lanz was a fervent follower.------Synopsis of sterilizerWomen, Race and Class is a collection of 13 essays about the American women's liberation movement from the 1960s up to the point at which the book was published, and also about slavery in the United States. She applies Marxist analysis to the relation of class and race to capitalism in America. Davis criticizes that the women's liberation movement has been run by and for white middle class women, to the exclusion of black women, other women of color and other social classes. She makes similar comments about women's suffrage. Davis comments on the participation of white women in the abolitionism movement. The book also describes the woman's club movement.Davis explores the economic role of black women slaves. She writes that black women under slavery had similar struggles to black men, both groups sharing the task of manual labor and participating in abolitionist activism. However, women were also expected to perform the household labor, similar to women of other races. Engaging in Marxist analysis, Davis argues that women's liberation should consist of women participating in wage labor and domestic labor becoming socialized. She believes that rape is a crime of power, giving the example of white men raping their black slaves. Davis describes the role of race in rape and the archetype of the black male rapist. She also comments on race and birth control, linking abortion-rights movements to the Eugenics Society and commenting on the sterilization of black and Puerto Rican women.------Objective of sterilizerThe objective of the decree was to solve the conflicts between the remensa peasants and their lords, conflicts that had motivated the two wars of the Remences. Negotiations for drafting the decree were very difficult. The king himself became directly involved and was an effective negotiator, at least in the economic sphere.Finally, King Ferdinand dictated the Sentencia Arbitral that allowed the end of the evil customs in exchange for a payment (not only for the "mal s" remena), and postponed the conflict that had lasted more than four centuries between lords and peasants.In exchange for a payment of 60 sous per farmstead, the right to mistreat peasants and many other minor statutory abuses were abolished. Peasants retained the usufruct of the farm, but had to pay homage to the lord and pay emphyteutic and feudal fees, albeit with irrational amounts, more to mark who was really in charge than for economic benefit. The upshot was that the abolition of the feudal system for which the peasants were fighting, was converted only into the possibility of freeing themselves from the evil customs, or "malae consuetudines", as people called it at that time.Signing on behalf of the peasants was Francesc de Verntallat along with 18 syndicates, including Lloren Espgol of Sant Feliu de Pallerols.
Knowledge Related to Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring
Knowledge Related to Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring
Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring (Ger. Gesetz zur Verhtung erbkranken Nachwuchses) or "Sterilisation Law" was a statute in Nazi Germany enacted on July 14, 1933, (and made active in January 1934) which allowed the compulsory sterilisation of any citizen who in the opinion of a "Genetic Health Court" (Gr. Erbgesundheitsgericht) suffered from a list of alleged genetic disorders many of which were not, in fact, genetic. The elaborate interpretive commentary on the law was written by three dominant figures in the racial hygiene movement: Ernst Rdin, Arthur Gtt and the lawyer Falk Ruttke. The law itself was based on the American Model Eugenical Sterilization Law developed by Harry H. Laughlin• Other Related Knowledge of sterilizerCareer as a lawyer of sterilizerConcepcin de Gracia worked as a lawyer specializing in civil and constitutional law. In 1936, at the age of 25, he moved to New York to represent Pedro Albizu Campos and other members of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, who were jailed and appealing their case.Concepcin de Gracia remained in New York, defending the civil rights of Hispanic workers and other minorities. He became more involved in politics, and particularly the cause of Puerto Rican independence from the United States. He befriended the like-minded congressman Vito Marcantonio, and took the editorship of a newspaper called La Voz ("The Voice").------Career of sterilizerAnne Tamar-Mattis spent six years as the Director of the National Youth Talkline at Lavender Youth Recreation & Information Center, a national peer-support line for LGBTQ youth. She became the first Program Director for the San Francisco LGBT Community Center in 2001. In 2003 she took a hiatus to attend law school and graduated from the University of California, Berkeley School of Law in 2006.Tamar-Mattis founded interACT with the support of fellowships from Equal Justice Works (2006) and Echoing Green (2008). She has been an adjunct professor at the University of California, Berkeley School of Law since 2008 where she teaches Sexual Orientation & the Law.------Named Archbishop of sterilizerOn January 30, 1978, Pope Paul VI through the papal bull Quoniam Archidioecesi named him Archbishop of Goa and Patriarch of the East Indies (and therefore Primate of the Indies and Archbishop of Cranganore). He retired January 16, 2004, after reaching 75 years of age the compulsory retirement age, in conformity with the Code of Canon Law canon 401 1.He was consecrated by Cardinal James Robert Knox. He also was the principal consecrant of Dom Filipe Neri Antnio Sebastio do Rosrio Ferro and the co-consecrating bishop was Aleixo das Neves Dias, SFX------Ridicule and Resistance of sterilizerThe women of Hijas de Cuauhtemoc were not taken seriously throughout the course of their existence. A mock burial for the writers of the newspaper with a MEChA priest, where they had tombstones made names inscribed with the names of the creators of the publication, signifying the end of their lives by working on this newspaper. MEChA stands for Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan, a student organization at California State University-Long Beach. MEChA did this also to take a stand to Nieto-Gmez, signifying their defiance to her newly elected seat as president of the organization, since she was female.------2007 Iraq cholera outbreak of sterilizerA lack of clean drinking water in Iraq in 2007 led to an outbreak of cholera. A total of approximately 7,000 people were infected, with 10 deaths reported.According to Dr. Ryadh Abdul Ameer, the director of the Basra health ministry, basic water sterilization became impossible in some places due to restrictions on the availability of chlorine for water sterilization.A shipment of 100,000 tons of chlorine was held up at the Jordanian border because of government restrictions on chlorine based on concerns that the chemical could be used in explosives.------About of sterilizerEco-Soap Bank was founded by social entrepreneur Samir Lakhani in 2014. While on a volunteer trip to Cambodia building fish ponds in remote villages, Lakhani saw a woman bathing her infant in laundry detergent, a hazardous substitute for soap. After learning more about hygiene issues in the developing world, he contacted scientist friends and developed a technique to melt down, sterilize, and reprocess recycled soap bars into new composite bars of eco-soap.Eco-Soap Bank now employs 30 staff in several locations across Cambodia. The organization is working to expand its reach to other developing countries with high mortality rates associated with hygiene-related illnesses.------Sterility of sterilizerSterile or sterility may refer to:Asepsis, a state of being free from biological contaminantsSterile (archaeology), sediment containing no evidence of human activitySterilization (microbiology), any process that eliminates or kills all forms of life from an item or fieldSterility (physiology), an inability of a living organism to effect sexual reproductionInfertility, the condition of a person, animal or plant being unable to bear children, especially through natural meansSterile Records, a record label formed in London in 1979 by Nigel Ayers and Caroline K of the post-industrial music group Nocturnal Emissions------Early years of sterilizerConcepcin de Gracia was born in the town of Vega Alta, Puerto Rico to Ceferino Concepcin lvarez and Carmen de Gracia Toro. There he attended Jos de Diego elementary school in his hometown of Vega Alta and "Central High School" in Santurce, a district of San Juan, Puerto Rico. After he graduated from high school, he continued his academic education studies and earned a bachelors and later master's degree in Law and Public Administration from the University of Puerto Rico. He earned a doctorate in Law from George Washington University Law School in Washington, D.C.------Nazi era and the training of deaf teachers of sterilizerBecause of this new curriculum aligned with Nazi party ideals, The institute became the main facility for training teachers of the deaf. They incorporated the National Socialist Racial ideas like eugenics, the science of human heredity and German race cultivation. It seems that the surviving existence of these schools were the only positive aspect within the Deaf community at this time. Unfortunately, reality proves that these exact schools were what funneled the Deaf towards their suffering. In fact, the teachers and administrators within these institutions were greatly responsible for informing on their Deaf students.------La Operacin of sterilizerLa Operacin is a forty-minute documentary film by Ana Mara Garca about US-imposed sterilization policies in Puerto Rico. Produced by the Latin America an Film Project and released in 1982, this film explores the mass sterilization of Puerto Rican women during the 1950s and 1960s. In the documentary, Garcia sheds light on the decades-long practice by conducting interviews with women of different ethnic and economic backgrounds who have undergone the sterilization procedure. In addition to these interviews, Garcia provides historical information regarding the conditions that led to the sterilization practice.------Legacy of sterilizerMuch of Margarete Sommer's activities would have been considered "high treason" in Hitler's Germany. Despite great personal risk Sommer assisted many individuals to either emigrate from the Third Reich or find safe refuge. Detailed records of those rescued were not kept lest the information fall into the hands of the Gestapo. Witnesses recall more than a hundred managed or rescued people. In 2003 Margarete Sommer was posthumously awarded the honorary title of Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem.Margarete-Sommer-Strae in Berlin is named after her, as is Margarete-Sommer-Platz in Kleinmachnow.------Work of sterilizerThe collective explores issues having to do with capitalism and media in the context of post-industrial society, and their work has been described as displaying "parodistic elegance between gravity and levity, comedy and catastrophe".The work of the collective ranges from graffiti in Dresden Neustadt in the early 1990s to the sculpture, videos, painting, and installations of today. The strategies of subversion Bewegung Nurr employed often referenced the work of other artist groups of the 80's and 90's, such as General Idea and Die Tdliche Doris.------Background of sterilizerThe three women applicants had been sterilised at a public hospital when giving birth via caesarean section. The women argued that any purported consent to the sterilisation had been coerced as they had either not been told the contents of the consent forms they were signing, did not understand the medical staff, or had been told by doctors that their caesarean surgeries would only be performed if they agreed to be sterilised.All the women are HIV-positive and believe that they were stigmatised and targeted for sterilisation on the basis of their HIV status.------History of sterilizerThe 12th-century canon law collection known as the Decretum Gratiani states that "Whether an hermaphrodite may witness a testament, depends on which sex prevails" ("Hermafroditus an ad testamentum adhiberi possit, qualitas sexus incalescentis ostendit.") On ordainment, Raming, Macy and Cook found that the Decretum Gratiani states, "item Hermafroditus. If therefore the person is drawn to the feminine more than the male, the person does not receive the order. If the reverse, the person is able to receive but ought not to be ordained on account of deformity and monstrosity."------Parliamentary career of sterilizerFrom 1976 until 1998 he served on the Bolton Borough Council. He was first returned to Parliament in the 1997 election as the MP for Bolton South East following the retirement of David Young. He served as MP until he stood down at the 2010 general election. He served on the Environmental Audit United Kingdom from 1997 until 2001, was a member of the science and technology committee 200007 and a member of the Innovation, Universities, Science and Skills since 2007. He also known as a campaigner for the legalisation of cannabis. In October 2006, he announced that he would be standing down at the next general election..------Sperm granuloma of sterilizerA sperm granuloma is a lump of extravasated sperm that appears along the vasa deferentia or epididymides in vasectomized men. Sperm granulomas are rounded or irregular in shape, one millimeter to one centimeter or more, with a central mass of degenerating sperm surrounded by tissue containing blood vessels and immune system cells. Sperm granulomas can be either asymptomatic or symptomatic (i.e., either not painful or painful, respectively) (see post-vasectomy pain syndrome).The vast majority of sperm granulomas in vasectomized men are present as a result of the pressure-induced changes of vasectomy.------Phycicoccus endophyticus of sterilizerPhycicoccus endophyticus is a species of Gram positive, strictly aerobic, non-endosporeforming bacterium. The species was initially isolated from surface sterilized bark of a black mangrove tree (Bruguiera gymnorhiza) collected from Zhanjiang Mangrove Forest National Nature Reserve in Guangdong, China. The species was first described in 2016, and its name refers to the endophytic nature of the organism.The optimum growth temperature for P. endophyticus is 37C and can grow in the 20-42C range. The optimum pH is 7.0, and can grow in pH 6.0-9.0. Also, the species can grow in the presence of up to 8.0% NaCl salt concentrations.------Office of Population Affairs of sterilizerThe Office of Population Affairs (OPA) is part of the Office of Public Health and Science in the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). It is responsible for reproductive health topics, including adolescent pregnancy, family planning, and sterilization, as well as other population issues.Created by an Act of Congress in 1970, the Office of Population Affairs, under the direction of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Population Affairs (DASPA), has three component offices responsible for the oversight of program functions: Office of Family Planning, Office of Adolescent Pregnancy Programs, and Office of Research and Evaluation.------Psychology Gone Wrong of sterilizerPsychology Gone Wrong: The Dark Sides of Science and Therapy is a 2015 book written by Tomasz Witkowski and Maciej Zatonski.It covers mistakes, frauds and abuses of academic psychology, psychotherapy, and psycho-business. In the book the authors review the history of fraudulent research and questionable research practices; the willingness of many psychologists to embrace pseudoscientific ideas and practices (psychoanalysis, recovered-memory therapy, projective testing, neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), etc.), exaggerated claims for the efficacy of psychological interventions, and so on. In each case the authors support their thesis with abundant references.------Disciples of sterilizerHis disciples include:failed verificationMuhammad Alawi al-MalikiSayed Muhammad AmeenMuhammad Mujeeb AshrafMahmood Ahmad Razvi Quadri Ashrafiohammed Akhtar Raza Khan AzhariQamaruzzaman AzmiMuhammad Afzal HusainMuhammad HusainRehan Raza KhanTehseen Raza KhanSayed Noor MuhammadZia Ul MustafaAbdul Hadi QaadriAhmad Muqaddam QaadriBadrul QaadriGhulam Sarwar Al QaadriMahmood Ahmad Qadri RafaqatiArshadul QaudriMuhammad Ibrahim RazaAbdul Hamid RazviMuhammad Ghufraan SiddiqiMuhammad Muslehuddin SiddiquiSayed Shah Shah Turab-ul-Haq------Prophylactic salpingectomy of sterilizerProphylactic salpingectomy is a preventative surgical technique performed on patients who are at higher risk of having ovarian cancer, such as individuals who may have pathogenic variants of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. Originally salpingectomy was used in cases of ectopic pregnancies. As a preventative surgery however, it involves the removal of the fallopian tubes. By not removing the ovaries this procedure is advantageous to individuals who are still of child bearing age. It also reduces risks such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis which are associated with removal of the ovaries.
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