Knowledge About Surgical Instruments
1. Background of surgical instrumentsFrances Davis was a student at Southeastern Community College and applied for the nursing program. Davis also had a hearing impairment, thus, her hearing was very poor and she relied mostly on lip-reading, even with a hearing aid. When she was interviewed, the problem was quickly noticed and she was told to consult an audiologist. Davis was diagnosed with a bilateral, sensori-neural hearing loss, and even with an improvement with a hearing aid she would only be able to dictate speech when someone spoke directly to her.The Executive Director of the State Board of Nursing reviewed her application and decided that it would not be safe for her to be a student in the program or to be a nurse. It was also decided that the accommodations that would have to be made for Davis would stop her from fully benefiting from the program. Davis asked the board to review the application once again, but was denied.After the second attempt, Davis filed a lawsuit claiming the school was denying her of the Fourteenth amendment and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.------2. Leopold Ritter von Dittel of surgical instrumentsLeopold Ritter von Dittel (May 29, 1815 July 28, 1898) was an Austrian urologist born in Fulnek, a community now located in the Czech Republic.Dittel received his medical doctorate in 1840 from the University of Vienna, and as a young man worked as a physician in Trentschin-Teplitz. From 1853 to 1857, he was an assistant to Johann von Dumreicher (1815-1880) and a surgical assistant at the university hospital in Vienna. Later, he became surgeon-in-chief of the Allgemeines Krankenhaus, and in 1865 attained the title of associate professor.He is credited for developing a number of innovative diagnostic and surgical practices in the field of genitourinary medicine. He is remembered for his pioneer diagnostic work with the cystoscope, a device that was a recent invention of urologist Maximilian Nitze (18481906). In urology, the cystoscope is used for endoscopic detection of bladder tumors and other urinary disorders. With Felix Legueu (18631939) and mile Forgue (18601943), the "Dittel-Forgue-Legueu operation" is named, defined as a surgical procedure for closure of vesicovaginal fistulae (VVF).A medical instrument used for treatment of stenosis of the urethra known as a "Dittel urethral sound" is named after him.------3. Written works of surgical instrumentsUeber Klumpfuss, (1851) - treatise on clubfoot.Skoliose, (1853) - treatise on scoliosisBeitrge zur Pathologie und Therapie der Mnnlichen Geschlechtstheile, (1859) - Contributions to the pathology and treatment of male genitalia.Sekundre Luxation des Hftgelenkes, (1861) - Secondary dislocation of hip.Der Kathederismus, (1864)Beitrag zur Lehre der Hypertrophie der Prostata, in Oesterreichischer Medizinischer Jahrbericht, (1867) - Contribution to the teaching of hypertrophy of the prostate.Der Steinsauger, in Allgemeine Wiener Medizinische Zeitung, (1870)Die Stricturen der Harnrhre (in Franz von Pitha - Theodor Billroth's Handbuch der Chirurgie), (1872) - Strictures of the urethra.Zur Behandlung der Hypertrophie der Vorsteherdrse in Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, (1876) - For treatment of hypertrophy of the prostate gland.Operationen der Blasensteine, (1880) - Operations for bladder stones.Nierencalculose, (1881) - kidney calculus.------4. Catlin (surgery) of surgical instrumentsA catlin or catling is a long, double-bladed surgical knife. It was commonly used from the 17th to the mid 19th century, particularly for amputations; thereafter its use declined in favor of mechanically driven (and later, electrically driven) oscillating saws.Surgeon William Clowes wrote about the instrument in a medical treatise written in 1596, that amputation required the use of "a very good catlin, and an incision knife," Later, surgeon John Woodall referred to a "catlinge" in a work in 1639. By 1693, when British navy surgeon John Moyle described proper amputation techniques, he wrote that "with your Catling, divide the Flesh and Vessels about and between the bones, and with the back of your Catling, remove the Periosteum that it may not hinder the saw, nor cause greater Torment in the Operation,".The term was thereafter understood to refer to an interosseous knife.------5. Published works of surgical instrumentsHe was the author of the two-part "Anatomische Demonstrationen, oder Sammlung kolossaler Abbildungen aus dem Gebiete der medicinischen Anatomie" (183032) that was later translated into English and published as "Anatomical demonstrations, or, Colossal illustrations of human anatomy" (183132). Other noteworthy published works by Seerig include:De hydroencephaloceles specimine eximio, 1822 (dissertation thesis).ber angeborene Verwachsung der Finger und Zehen und Ueberzahl derselben, 1824 On congenital deformities of the fingers and toes, etc.Nonnulla de fungi durae matris origine et diagnosi, 1825.Armamentarium chirurgicum; oder, Mglichst vollstndige Sammlung von Abbildungen und Beschreibung chirurgischer Instrumente lterer und neuerer Zeit (2 volumes, 183538) Armamentarium chirurgicum, or as complete as possible collection of illustrations and descriptions of surgical instruments from ancient and modern times.------6. Leopold Bettelheim of surgical instrumentsLeopold Bettelheim, Yiddish: Meyer Leb Bettelheim (Hungarian: Bettelheim Leopold, Bettelheim Meyer Lb; February 23, 1777, Hlohovec April 9, 1838) was a Hungarian physician.He was not only eminent in his profession, but was considered a Hebraist of some importance. He lived in Freystdtel, on the Waag, and there held the responsible office of physician-in-ordinary to Count Joseph Erddy, the influential court chancellor of Hungary, in whose private residence are still preserved the surgical instruments used by Bettelheim in saving the lives of the count and his family, together with documents recording some remarkable cures effected by him.In 1830 Bettelheim was the recipient of a gold medal of honor from the emperor Francis I for distinguished services to the royal family and to the nobility.------7. Oral Surgery of surgical instrumentsCryer made several contributions to the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. He is also known for developing the electrically operated surgical engine for cutting bone for jaw surgery and the spiral osteotome and guard for cranial surgery. In 1904, he designed forces to extract teeth during dental surgery. These forces specifically were universally designed for incisor and their roots. The two forceps were designed for upper and lower teeth. The left and right elevators also developed from his contributions. He initially made the two left and right scaling instruments for the scaling purposes and eventually he was able to use them to elevate dental roots.------8. George Kellogg (inventor) of surgical instrumentsGeorge Kellogg (June 19, 1812 1901) was an American inventor and patent expert.Kellogg was born at New Hartford, Connecticut in 1812 to Isaac Kellogg (1782-1824) and Aurilla Barney (1792-1861). George graduated from Wesleyan University in 1837. From 1838 to 1841, he was principal of the Sumter Academy in Sumterville, South Carolina. He was for some time a manufacturer in Birmingham, Connecticut, and was in the United States revenue service from 1863 to 1866. He established factories in England, was a patent expert, and patented a machine for making jack chains (1844), a dovetailing machine (1849), a type-distributing machine (1852), and improved surgical instruments (1853). He married Jane Elizabeth Crosby (1816-1892) and they had a child, Clara Louise Kellogg.------9. Jules Germain Cloquet of surgical instrumentsJules Germain Cloquet (18 December 1790 23 February 1883) was a French physician and surgeon who was born and practiced medicine in Paris. His older brother, Hippolyte Cloquet (1787-1840) and his younger nephew Ernest Cloquet (1818-1855) were also physicians. In 1821 Jules Cloquet became one of the earliest members elected to the Acadmie Nationale de Mdecine in Paris. In 1836, he was elected Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland.Cloquet was known for his expertise as a surgeon, especially his work with hernial disorders. He was also the first to describe and identify the remnant of the embryonic hyaloid artery. This vestige was to become known as Cloquet's canal.Cloquet's name is associated with three anatomical terms regarding the femoral canal:"Cloquet's hernia": a hernia of the femoral canal"Cloquet's septum": a fibrous membrane bounding the annulus femoralis at the base of the femoral canal"Cloquet's gland": small lymphatic nodes in the femoral canalCloquet was a skilled artist; in his best-known work, Anatomie de l'homme, most of the 1300 illustrations were drawn by him. He was the inventor of several surgical instruments, including an arterial forceps. He also had a keen interest in alternative medical practices such as mesmerism and acupuncture.------10. Decision of surgical instrumentsThe District Court decided that because Davis was not able to work adequately as a nurse, then she was not protected under Section 504, which states that a person must be able to perform all duties of a job, despite their disability.According to The Law and Higher Education, the court stated that In many situations such as an operation room intensive care unit, or post-natal care unit, all doctors and nurses wear surgical masks which would make lip-reading impossible. Additionally, in many situations, a Registered Nurse would be required to instantly follow a physicians instructions concerning procurement of various types of instruments and drugs where the physician would be unable to get the nurses attention by other than vocal means.The decision was overturned by the Fourth Court, saying that the first court did not understand Section 504. After reviewing the case the Supreme Court decided that the ability to hear was crucial in a nurse's daily work, and the accommodations that the program would have to provide was far more than what Section 504 outlines.------11. Career of surgical instrumentsConstable grew up playing music as a part of the Wiseman family from western North Carolina. He began his professional career playing guitar with his mother's husband, the accomplished bluegrass musician Charlie Moore. As a teenager, he found work touring with Doug Dillard. He later moved to California to play with family band the Constables.Despite his equable bluegrass roots, Constable proved himself to be a versatile musician as the years went on. He worked repeatedly in more electric and psychedelic settings with Jam bands Leftover Salmon and String Cheese Incident. During his tenure with Hypnotic Clambake, he was found playing everything from polkas to reggae to Bulgarian music. The Blueridge National Heritage Area states on their website that Constable's banjo playing "can be deceptively eclectic. His influences begin at home and with his family, but Billy's repertoire is vast, and he is comfortable in most musical situations."Constable played regularly with mandolinist Mark Schimick, the Big Daddy Bluegrass Band, and guitarist Larry Keel. He often performed around Boone or Asheville, not far from where he grew up in western North Carolina. He played an active role in the music scene around many parts of Appalachia.------12. Ayre spatula of surgical instrumentsThe Ayre spatula is a device used to collect Pap smear. It is a wooden spatula with U shaped openings on one side and a flat surface on another. The broad end is for vaginal sample collection and the narrow end is for cervical sample collection. It is rotated 360 degrees in the vagina to obtain the cells to be sent for Pap smear examination. Recent studies have shown that long-tipped spatulas (Aylesbury device) or a cytobrush along with an extended-tip spatula are better than Ayre spatula in collecting endocervical cells. However, Ayre spatula continues to be used for cervical sample collection in less-income countries. Ayre spatula is introduced into the cervix after visualizing the os using a speculum. The cytology specimens are obtained by rotating the spatula firmly over the ectocervix and quickly transferring the cells to a slide or jar.The Ayre spatula was invented by James Ernest Ayre and Georgios Papanikolaou. Ayre was granted a patent for it in 1949 and donated the profits from sales of the spatula to the American Cancer Society.------13. Albrecht Theodor Middeldorpf of surgical instrumentsAlbrecht Theodor Middeldorpf (3 July 1824, Breslau 29 July 1868, Breslau) was a German surgeon.He studied medicine at the universities of Breslau and Berlin, receiving his medical doctorate in 1846. As a student, his instructors included Jan Evangelista Purkyn, Johannes Peter Mller and Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach. Following graduation, he worked as assistant under Purkyn at Breslau for a year, then embarked on a study trip to Vienna and Paris. In 1853 he became an associate professor of surgery and ophthalmology at Breslau, and soon afterwards, was named head surgeon of the Allerheiligen-Hospital. In 1856 he became a full professor and director of the surgical-ophthalmologic clinic. During the Second Schleswig War (1864) and Austro-Prussian War (1864), he distinguished himself in the treatment of battle-related injuries.He is best remembered for his pioneer work in galvanocautery, being credited with the standardization of its surgical techniques. In 1854 he published the first monograph in regards to the application of electrical current in surgery. In September 1856 he demonstrated his galvano-surgical methods in Paris, of which, he was awarded the Montyon Prize by the Paris Academy of Sciences.