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Introduction to Surgical Instruments

1. Sources of surgical instruments

Morales y Marn, J.L., Francisco Bayeu, vida y obra, Zaragoza, Moncayo, 1995. .mw-parser-output cite.citationfont-style:inherit.mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"""""""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registrationcolor:#555.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon abackground-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em center.mw-parser-output code.cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none;font-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorfont-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inheritISBN84-7675-021-8 El arte de los Bayeu, Expo 92 (Sevilla). Pabelln de Aragn, 1991. ISBN84-404-9266-9

Los Bayeu, Caja de Ahorros y Monte de Piedad de Zaragoza, Aragn y Rioja (Ibercaja, Obra Social y Cultural), 1979. ISBN84-500-3272-5

Sambricio, V. De, Francisco Bayeu, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas, 1956. ISBN84-00-00566-X

Francisco Bayeu in the Enciclopedia en Lnea @ the Museo del Prado.

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2. Life of surgical instruments

Aitken was born in Bishophill, York in 1861. She was the daughter of Henry Martin Aitken, a surgical instrument manufacturer, and his wife, Elizabeth Atkinson. She had an elder sister and a younger brother Charles Aitken who would lead the Tate Gallery. Her father believed in educating his daughters. He died in 1875 but he requested that Edith should attend the North London Collegiate School (NLCS) where her elder sister, Rose, was already teaching. Rose had attended Girton College and in 1879 Edith left NLCS and followed her sister. She became a scientist and took the natural sciences tripos. She had a first class pass of Part 1 exams and would have taken a degree had she been male. As it was she had to obtain an M.A. from Dublin.

She practised at some important schools. Her first post was at Manchester High School for Girls which she left in 1883 to join Nottingham Girls' High School. She was at Notting Hill High School in 1886 where in 1891 she published an Elementary Textbook of Botany She returned to Frances Buss's North London Collegiate School as a science teacher and in 1899 she left to teach chemistry at Bedford College. Whilst she was there the South African War was in progress and it was complete by 1902.

Aitken became the first headmistress of Pretoria High School for Girls. The war had ended and she was determined to bring together cultural groups. The school's motto came from NLSC but the School Charter was new. She modeled the school after Frances Buss's North London Collegiate School where she and her sister had taught. She also adopted the motto, "We work in hope" to apply to the new girls school. In the school's first magazine she wrote:

"On the first re-opening nearly half the girls were of Dutch extraction. The school was opened and conducted with the earnest hope that here girls of different races and different denominations might meet in the commonwealth of letters which gave Erasmus and Shakespeare to the World; to acquire there, in accordance with the ideals of Christian Duty, the healthy physique, the trained mind and the disciplined character which should fit each to live worthily in that state of life unto which it should please God to call her.

Aitken employed Dutch speaking staff and she took lessons in Dutch. The school expanded and in 1915 the school was given new buildings and in 1917 playing fields. By 1923 when Aitken retired the school was acknowledged as the best in South Africa. Two years after she retired and she finally got the Cambridge degree that she had earned in the 19th century.

Aitken made her last visit to Pretoria in 1938. She died in Wrecclesham in 1940.

Introduction to Surgical Instruments 1

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3. Peter Amollo Odhiambo of surgical instruments

Peter Amollo (P. A.) Odhiambo, MBBS, MMed (Surg), FRCS (Edin), FCS (ECSA), FACC, is a Kenyan consultant thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon. He is Kenya's first cardio-thoracic surgeon and a professor of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery at the University of Nairobi. He is a founder and former chairman of the Kenya Cardiac Society, and a former president of the Pan African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR). Odhiambo is the chairman of the Kenya Tobacco Control Board. He is also the founder and editor of Medicom, the African Journal of Hospital Medicine.

In 1986, Odhiambo was given an award for an outstanding contribution in medicine by the Giant Federation of Kenya, and in 1993 he received another award from PASCAR for his distinguished service to cardiology in Africa. He was the tenth dean of Nairobi University's Faculty, now School of Medicine, serving from 1992 to 1996. During his tenure, he successfully steered the faculty towards cost-sharing through its most difficult period for both staff and students. In 2012, he was given the Mater Hospital Recognition Award, followed, in 2013, by the SSK award for Outstanding Role in Medical Education and Teaching. He conceptualized and then chaired the University of Nairobi Teaching Hospital Project. He has written two books: Tobacco Versus Health and Making Sense of Cessation of Tobacco.

Odhiambo has campaigned widely against drug abuse and is at the forefront in the fight for the liberation of tobacco farmers in East Africa. He has steered the Kenya Tobacco Control Board to a successful level enabling the board be legally institutionalized. He has also played a key role in ensuring that the legal mandate of the board is within the laid down legal framework as per the Tobacco Control Act of 2007, thus the Board has all the necessary instruments to operate legally. In 2008, Odhiambo won an award from the World Health Organization for his accomplishments in the area of tobacco control. In 2016 he won the WHO World No-Tobacco Day Award to Board I Chair. He worked tirelessly behind the scenes to create awareness on the dangers of shisha (hookah), and was instrumental in the Kenya government's decision to ban shisha in the country.

He is involved in many community projects in his home village of Kanyaluo, found in Rachuonyo District in Western Kenya's Homa Bay County. He is a founder member and chairman of the Karachuonyo Development Society.

In 1998, Odhiambo's son, James Ocholla Odhiambo "Jordan", was gunned down by Kenyan policemen, for no cause, on his way home from the Nairobi Campus of the United States International University, where he was a student. The tragedy, which exposed corruption in the Kenya Police at that time, received wide media coverage and was a major source of motivation for Odhiambo's interest in, and consequent campaigns toward, the efficiency and effectiveness of the Kenya Police.

Odhiambo was educated at the Calcutta Medical College, Nairobi University, the University of Edinburgh and McGill University. He resides in Nairobi with his family.

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