Typical beer recipe instructions are as you mentioned in commentsThese instructions will work fine and make beer, but they won't necessarily make the best (or clearest) beer. Some suppliers have adjusted their recipes to the beer style, adding more time to the instructions. In most cases, 1 week is not long enough for a beer to finish, but the secondary racking will kind of kick it along, though the use of secondary is questioned by some (myself included - I never secondary unless I have another reason to, like racking onto fruit or because I want a cleaner container), but the added time is helpful (whether you moved it or not). Most beers finish fermentation within 7-10 days with temperature control, but this can vary widely depending on the yeast and temperature. However, even after fermentation is finished, most ales will benefit from at least some bulk aging at ale temps; improving the flavor. After that, cold crashing or lagering will help clear a beer (letting the ale sit at cooler temps - the cooler the better). Ales aren't wine, so we aren't talking months, although the stronger the ale, the more time it may take. Giving an extra week or two in the primary, and another week or two at fridge temps can have a significant positive impact on the flavor and clarity of an ale. Lagers benefit from much longer aging, especially at lager temperatures. You can use fining agents, but time is also effective, though it may take longer. Most fining agents take a couple of weeks, which is a good aging period after fermentation is complete anyway, so you really can't go wrong with them. You'll probably find adding a 2 week period without a fining agent will also get you very clear beer, but that will depend on the recipe and method. Aging will typically not benefit the clarity of a wheat beer, as the haze remains in suspension for longer periods (forever?). There is such a thing as kristallweizen, but that normally takes filtration
------2. What concentration of hydrogen peroxide kills mold?
The CDC Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities provides a good overview of various disinfectants and their effectiveness against different kinds of pathogens, along with citations if you're interested in more detail.This document doesn't evaluate the effectiveness of Hydrogen Peroxide against Stachybotrys (black mold) specifically (the CDC specifically recommends Chlorine Bleach for this purpose), but it does describe it's effectiveness as a fungicide. Note that the level of disinfection needed to control pathogenic fungus in a healthcare setting is likely much higher than needed to control black mold in a house, but it can give you a sense of how effective Hydrogen Peroxide is overall:A 0.5% accelerated hydrogen peroxide demonstrated bactericidal and
virucidal activity in 1 minute and mycobactericidal and fungicidal
activity in 5 minutes 656...A 7% stabilized hydrogen peroxide proved to be sporicidal (6 hours of
exposure), mycobactericidal (20 minutes), fungicidal (5 minutes) at
full strength ... 655...The 7% solution of hydrogen peroxide, tested after 14 days of stress
(in the form of germ-loaded carriers and respiratory therapy
equipment), was ... fungicidal (>5 log10 reduction in 20
minutes),663...A new, rapid-acting 13.4% hydrogen peroxide formulation (that is not
yet FDA-cleared) has demonstrated sporicidal, mycobactericidal,
fungicidal, and virucidal efficacy. Manufacturer data demonstrate that
this solution sterilizes in 30 minutes and provides high-level...Commercially available 3% hydrogen peroxide is a stable and effective disinfectant when used on inanimate surfaces
disinfection in 5 minutes 669From this, it seems like you'd want to use accelerated Hydrogen Peroxide, or 7% stabilize Hydrogen Peroxide to ensure fungicidal disinfection. 3% Hydrogen Peroxide is effective against bacteria, but the studies cited didn't test it against fungi.
------3. How to create a genetically high IQ population while avoiding regression to the mean as much as possible?
How to create a genetically high IQ population while avoiding regression to the mean as much as possible?To avoid the leveling drift (regression to the mean) in a population, what you need to do is Hybridize:A hybrid may occasionally be better fitted to the local environment than the parental lineage and as such natural selection may favor these individuals.The Bell curve is considerably flattened and shifted to the right - as most hybrids don't survive, but those who can thrive, will.So a problem occurs if you wish to genetically isolate a particular population - regression to the mean is the least of your worries if there is no selective pressure to improve the population's intelligence.But I guess you figured that out, so pressure selecting for inteligence to allow for reproduction then:You'd be looking at a form of licensed fertility in the wider population based on whatever test of inteligence you deem appropriate. So let's test people (Vis a vis: Hunger Games like?) at an age before they can reproduce and depending on the outcome, sterilize them (I posit that enforced death is a form of reproductive sterilisation) or support them to breed.The various interactions between intelligence and personality traits are more complex than simple hope would wish. It's kinda difficult to select for just intelligence, intelligent aggressive people will likely always have an edge over the agreeable intelligent ones in any kind of spontaneous combat, or competative environment - will you end up with a society of warlords/conquerors or can you develop a methodology that selects for other characteristics?I feel that rather than answer the question here, I've re-asked it at a slightly higher resolution. Does this framing suit the OP? If not, it's a subject that interests me, let's go further.
------4. How to test desert (Dubai-like) conditions when you are in a temperate climate
The usual approach is to use an environmental chamber to control the temperature. Humidity can also be controlled with many or most commercial environmental chambers, but usually high humidity is of concern so there are means to increase the humidity in the chamber by means of evaporating water and measuring Rh with something like a wet bulb/dry bulb hygrometer. Relative humidity will drop as the same volume of air moisture is heated, of course. See the below psychrometric chart from this website: But, as I say, usually low RH is not too much of a concern. It can increase the likelihood of ESD (which you should protect against anyway) and change the mechanical size and characteristics of hygroscopic materials such as polyamide (nylon) but usually it's benign or advantageous. Direct sunlight can cause damage to plastics and other materials and cause high temperatures to occur within an enclosure. I've seen manufacturers of products simply put their products outside in the sunlight for a few months and monitor the deterioration. There are solar simulators but they are not that common for ordinary electronics testing, at least in my experience. You can easily hack the controlled increase in temperature with an enclosure, a temperature controller and a sensor, plus a heater. An ordinary incandescent bulb can serve as a heater. I have a device like that made to sterilize N95 masks, which has almost zero in materials. A commercial environmental chamber might cost $15K, more if you need to simulate high altitudes as well as temperature and humidity.
------5. While making pepper oil with dry crushed red pepper, do I need to sterilize the jars to store for up to 6 months?
Basic answer: it's generally recommended to sterilize jars before storing low-acid foods at room temperature. (Many canning procedures effectively sterilize the jars during processing.) In your case, you should be certain the jars are clean and thoroughly dry as well.
Regarding your overall proposal: I'd only give away food gifts like this if I had prepared them according to an established procedure and recipe tested by a reputable food safety and preservation organization. Your proposal sounds like it could be safe, but I can't find any such recipes at the National Center for Home Food Preservation or similar sources. Generally, most food safety websites don't recommend storing any homemade flavored oils at room temperature or for more than a few days in the refrigerator. (There were some older recommendations that allowed for dried herbs and/or herbs that were strained out of oil after a brief infusion, but even these were found to have a small risk -- because only lab testing can determine whether herbs are dried sufficiently or whether you've managed to strain out all the small particles -- and are no longer listed on most food preservation sites.) Commercial preparations of flavored oils almost exclusively involve prior acidification of the additives to ensure safety.Also, I would note that heating the oil hot enough to kill botulism bacteria will cause it to degrade somewhat in quality and flavor. (This is another reason why commercial preparations use acidification.)Lastly, just my opinion: I don't want to overstate the risk here (which is likely low), but without a tested procedure it's impossible to know for certain when storing low-acid foods at room temperature. And botulism toxin can be deadly. I know it sounds like a nice idea, but I personally would not give flavored oils as gifts. Even if I found a reputable recipe from a food preservation site that had been scientifically tested, the people I give these things to have to trust that I know what I'm doing. Personally, I tend to discard any flavored oils I've received as gifts before using (unless I would trust the person and know how the food was prepared)
------6. Do you need to boil bottled water
First off, everything has bacteria. It's pretty impossible to remove all bacteria unless you work in a highly sterilized environment. In this case, however, bottled water is mass-filtered and mass-bottled in bottling plants that undoubtedly contain bacteria. No, you don't need to boil bottled water. Boiling water is necessary when you don't know the source of the water, the amount of bacteria, or the types of impurities within the water, i.e. stream water, which nowadays, depending on the stream, I wouldn't recommend drinking from (nevertheless giving it to an 8-month-old). Bottled water manufacturers submit their water to be tested just like any other food, usually vetted through their country's equivalent of the FDA.
Sidenote about water and small childrenDon't give your child distilled water, ever. Also, don't give your child too much water. While drinking water is relatively benign for older children all the way up to adults, we usually take in a lot more salts than infants and toddlers. Drinking too much water can cause infants and toddlers to rapidly lose electrolytes which ensure that are intra/extracellular fluids stay conductive. An electrolyte imbalance in the body can have serious side effects including death if not treated quickly.If you are concerned about your child's level of hydration, give them something like Pedialyte or heavily water-dilated low-sugar sports drinks.
------7. Super Market Checkout Pricing Strategies
I'm going to try writing a short answer.A private field like this doesn't suggest immutability:This does:If you can break encapsulation and do this:Then you can break encapsulation and do that:Where's the public char Value get return _value; property getter? I see why you don't need one...That Sku struct is essentially... a character. Sure it fulfills the A, B, C sample SKU's from the problem statement, but real-world SKU's could be 10-digit codes... your implementation simply doesn't scale all that well.
Does it make sense to treat any '%', '$' and ',' as a SKU? Absolutely not. There's no gain in using a Sku vs. using a char throughout your code!I would have approached the data structure differently. First of all, I would have created a Product class, something like this:Then go on with ProductPricing strategies, without allowing just about any string out there to be treated as a Product.
The correct type to use to talk cash, is decimal. By using double, you've exposed yourself to floating-point rounding errors, which is not cool for something granular like a SKU. I'm pretty sure at least one of your tests break if prices start involving non-integer amounts.
.. and if not, then there's a false sense of accuracy going on here - using double for money is going to end up causing rounding errors one way or another, one day or another