Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Light Microscope

"1. What are the advantages of a light compound microscope over an electronic microscope?

A light compound microscope is not capable of the very high resolution and magnification of an electron microscope. A practical resolution limit is about 0.2 micrometers and a practical maximum magnification of about 1000x. However this covers an awful lot of samples, and there are some definite advantages. It is easier to use than an electron microscope, and certainly cheaper.The images you get are in colour, since you are normally using white light as the illumination source, whereas electron microscopes do not produce images in colour (#1). If you are using a chemical stain to enhance some feature, then you can see the colour of the stain. If you are using a fluorescence microscope then you see the fluorescence in colour.Samples are just placed on the stage in ambient air, so you can view samples either dry or wet, or suspended in a liquid. In a compound microscope, samples are usually mounted on a glass slide and may be under a glass coverslip. You can view some specimens live. If specimens are too thick for the light to penetrate, they may need to be sectioned into thin slices (typically in the range 1 - 10 micrometers), which can then be viewed. In some cases this can be done with a razor blade, or a microtome if you need thinner sections. For a transmission electron microscope, specimens often need to be prepared as very thin slices (typically less than 0. 1 micrometer thick), and this can be a much more complicated procedure than for a light microscope, especially for materials and geological samples.In electron microscopes, the samples are placed in a vacuum and are bombarded with a beam of electrons. Therefore, in general, the preparation methods for the specimens that you want to image are more exacting than for light microscopes. However light microscopes are normally very useful for initial examination of specimens before they are prepared for the electron microscope, and even during the preparation procedure.(#1 Some electron microscope images you see on the Web look great in colour but they have been colorised to enhance them - the original images would have been in monochrome.)What are the advantages of a light compound microscope over an electronic microscope?.

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2. What are some of the interesting facts about microscope?

Interesting Microscope Facts:Before the invention of microscopes people believed that illnesses were the result of poisonous gases or evil spirits. Once the microscope was created and people could see viruses and bacteria, these beliefs began to change.The very first microscopes were used to study insects, and they were nicknamed 'flea glasses'. Many believe that Zacharias and Han Jansen created the first compound microscope in the 1590s, but others believe it was Cornelis Drebbel in the 1620s.In 1625 the name 'microscope' was chosen by Giovanni Faber to reference the compound microscope created by Galileo Galilei's.A compound microscope has at least two lenses, including one at the eye called the eye piece, and one at the end closest to the sample called the objective. In 1665 a man named Robert Hooke published a book that included images (hand-drawn) of samples seen under the microscope's lens. His book was titled Micrographia.A microscope works because it is able to distinguish close structures as separate structures.Robert Hooke is credited with the discovery of cells, after studying a cork under the microscope. Taste buds and red blood cells were identified by Marcello Marpighi. He is known as the father of microscopic anatomy.Antony van Leeuwenhoek invented a single lens microscope in the 1660s that could magnify a sample 200 times. Antony van Leeuwenhoek is credited with discovering cells in plant tissue, and in animal and human blood and tissue.Robert Koch, a German physician and microbiologist, is credited with discovering cholera bacilli and tuberculosis.Compound microscopes today are so advanced that they can magnify a sample as many as 1000 times. When a sample under the microscope is photographed (the magnified image) it is called a micrograph.An electron microscope uses electrons instead of light to create the magnified image. The first electron microscope was the transmission electronic microscope, invented in 1931 by Ernst Ruska. The scanning electron microscope was invented in 1935 by Max Knoll.The scanning probe microscope was created in the 1980s, by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer.The atomic force microscope was created in 1986 by Gerd Bennig. A 500 nanometer long object was the smallest sample seen through a light microscope.When preparing a sample to view under a microscope, sometimes it is stained to make it more visible.What are some of the interesting facts about microscope?.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Light Microscope 1

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3. What happens to chromosomes during anaphase 1 and anaphase 2?

What generally happens during anaphase?Chromosomes line up on the spindles between centrosomes during metaphase (the preceding stage to anaphase) at the equatorial plate (the centre line of the cell).nAfter this occurs then the chromosomes pull apart towards respective ends (towards the centrosomes) of the cell during each stage of anaphase. The difference between the two stages of anaphase lies in what is being pulled apart. Why are different chromosomes being pulled apart in different stages?To understand this, we first need to clear up some chromosomal terminology. The entire unit below is known as a tetrad (of four chromosomes). Before a tetrad is formed you have one blue and one red chromosome, each of which comes from a different parent. These are known as homologous chromosomes. Next these chromosomes each make a duplicate, identical chromosome, forming sister chromatid pairs. **NOTE: Don't get confused between the terminology of chromosome and chromatid. Chromatid is normally referred to before the genetic material has compressed into visible chromosomes, but this is generally a grey area and most of the time the terms of interchangeable. nThese chromosomes contain the same genes at the same loci (locations), but with potentially different alleles (variations of genes, for example dominant or recessive) depending on the paternal and maternal inheritance. These chromosomes are each duplicated and form two pairs of sisters chromatids. These two pairs then "glue" together and form the previously discussed tetrad unit, through a link between the two sister chromatid pairs known as the chiasmata. So which chromosome pairs get pulled apart in what phases?During anaphase 1 homologous pairs split apart, whereas during anaphase 2 identical sister chromatid pairs split apart. Essentially you are splitting up maternal and paternal chromosomes during anaphase 1, and identical chromosomes during anaphase 2. **NOTE: Be weary of the way in which some textbooks/articles/professors choose to term a chromosome. I was initially taught that a chromosome is a chromatid once it condenses into visibility under a light microscope during prophase. However, as some of my subsequent teachers and some newer textbooks have decided, the term can be used for both a single chromatid that has condensed and a pair of identical sister chromatids - go figure. What happens to chromosomes during anaphase 1 and anaphase 2?What happens to chromosomes during anaphase 1 and anaphase 2 ?

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4. What are good microscope brands?

Are you planning to purchase a microscope from a good brand? Well, high end microscope brands are quite expensive. But as per your question, it seems that budget is not a constraint. So heres a list of top brands that will help you make a better decision:-1. Nikon-Founded in 1917, Nikon is one of the best and biggest microscope manufacturers in the world. One of the biggest strengths of the company lies in its technological innovation and creativity. This has allowed Nikon to continue changing with time, thereby producing products that meet the needs of the consumer. Some of the best Nikon microscopes are The Eclipse 80i and 90i Models (compound microscopes), SMZ1500 (Stereo microscope), and SMZ445 / 460 (Stereo microscope).Here are the major highlights: High durability of its mechanical components High precision Enhanced functionalities/capabilities to accommodate various research fields Impressive contrast levels, resolution and increased field of view A wide range of accessories2. Lecia-Founded in the 19th century (1869) Leica has grown to become a leader in global design and production of the state of the art optical systems. One of the biggest strengths of Leica is that it is well known for quality.Some of the innovative products to be produced recently include: Leica EZ4 W (a stereo educational microscope) - This particular microscope allows users to transfer HB images directly to their mobile devices. The Leica MZ16 - Despite being a stereo microscope, this model comes with the apochromatic objective lens and provides a magnification range that extends further in to the capacity of a compound light microscope with ample working distances. Here are the major highlights: Top-level operational convenience and error-free analysis of image material Adaptability (depending on the needs of the user) All its product series are ergonomic3. Zeiss-Apart from being the oldest microscope manufacturer, Zeiss is also the largest producer of optical equipment in the world. Since its foundation, Zeiss has played an important role in the industry is at the forefront of both design and manufacturing. Some of the strengths of Zeiss microscopes include: Exceptional flexibility They are highly configurable Such microscopes as the Axio Scope. A1 allow for a broad range of applicationsYou can check this article to know a complete list of top Microscope available in the market offered by different leading brands

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5. What is the structure of flagella?

Bacterial Flagella: structure, types and functionFlagellum (singular) is hair like helical structure emerges from cell wall and cell membraneIt is responsible for motility of the bacteriaSize: thin 15-20nm in diameter.Single flagella can be seen with light microscope only after staining with special stain which increase the diameter of flagella.Structure of flagella:Flagella is not straight but is helical. It is composed of flagellin protein (globular protein) and known as H antigen.Flagella has three parts. Basal body, Hook and filamentBasal body:it is composed of central rod inserted into series of rings which is attached to cytoplasmic memvbrane and cell wall.L-ring: it is the outer ring present only in Gram -ve bacteria, it anchored in lipopolysaccharide layerP-ring: it is second ring anchored in peptidoglycan layer of cell wall. M-S ring: anchored in cytoplasmic membraneC ring: anchored in cytoplasmHook:it is the wider region at the base of filamentit connects filament to the motor protein in the baselength of hook is longer in gram ve bacteria than gram -ve bacteriaFilament:it is thin hair like structure arises from hook.Types of flagellaOn the basis of arrangement1. Monotrichous:presence of single flagella in one end of cell. examples; Vibrio cholera, Pseudomonas aerogenosa2. Lophotrichous:presence of bundle of flagella in one end of cell.example: Pseudomanas fluroscence3. Amphitrichous:presence of single or cluster of flagella at both end of cell. example; Aquaspirillium4. Peritrichous:presence of flagella all over the cell surface.example; E.coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella5. Atrichous:absent of flagella.example; ShigellaFunction:Flagellar motility:At the base surrounding the inner ring (M-S and C ring) there is a series of protein called Mot protein.A final set of protein called Fli protein function as motor switch. The flagella motor rotates the filament as a turbine causing movement of the cell in the medium.The movement of flagella results from rotation of basal body which is similar to the movement of the shaft of an electric motor.A turning motion is generated between S-ring and M ring. S-ring acts as starter while M ring acts as roter.The basal body as a whole give a universal joint to the cell and allows complete rotation of hook and filament.Flagella moves the cell by rotating the flagella about the basal body. Rotation of flagella is either clockwise or anticlockwise.What is the structure of flagella?"

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How Do They Identify Bacteria Seen by a Microscope?
How Do They Identify Bacteria Seen by a Microscope?
Bacteria are not usually identified using a light microscope. Bacteria are at the limit of resolution of the light microscope and do not provide much visual detail other than perhaps form and surface coat characteristics. Bacteria are usually cultured to identify them. Classical methods involved how they look and grow on agar plates and what type of media they grow on. They can be visualized using electron microscopes which have much higher resolution than light microscopes. The modern approach would be to analyze their DNA using culturing after isolating them as a colony on an agar plate and then extracting their DNA and identifying their species using restriction enzymes to produce characteristic fragments known as u2018bar codesu2019 of their IDs. If a bacterium was observed in a light microscope view of a surface, a micromanipulator could be used to collect that individual bacterium and transfer it to a culture plate for potential growth and identification via the protocol suggested above.How do they identify bacteria seen by a microscope?• Related QuestionsWhat is the difference between a compound light microscope and a dissecting microscope? What similarities do they share?The chief differences are: a compound microscope is usually high powered and is used to view slides; a dissecting microscope will be low powered (usually less than x40), have no stage and usually completely stereoscopic.Dissecting microscopes have a cantilevered or counterbalanced arm that holds the optics so that they can be positioned over the item being dissected. Formerly, dissecting microscopes were monocular but have largely been replaced by stereo instruments as these give a much better view of the object. They occasionally compromise two monocular scopes side-by-side and thus have two objective lenses. More often two ocular scopes share a single large objective lens and sometimes offer a zoom facility going from very low power up to the maximum power of the objective lens. Such objective lenses can be very large, 20 to 30mm in diameter. The ocular or eyepiece lenses usually have a diopter of 1, i.e. they do not magnify,What is the difference between a compound light microscope and a dissecting microscope? What similarities do they share?------What are the components of a cell seen under a microscope?Depends on the kind of microscope and typically the kind of stain used on the tissues. When properly stained with dyes, in a light microscope, the cell membranes and adjacent cells comprising of the tissue are clearly observed, the cell nucleus are clearly observed for those cell that have cell nuclei. Some stains allow the observation of nervous tissue and mitochondria. Muscle fibers and collagen fibers can also be observed. Bacteria can also be observed within the gut. Most tissues observed with a light microscope are sectioned thinly and stained to observed these structures. Sometimes, smears, drops, or needle aspirates of body fluids are used to observe blood, cancer biopsies to see whether structures are normal or not. Under certain circumstances and with certain cells, chromosomes can also be observed.Pick up a histology book to see what a cells look like in the body. Looking at cells with an electron microscope is a whole other world going even smaller into inner space!What are the components of a cell seen under a microscope?------Why can't a person catch HIV from body fluids or saliva?HIV is a virus and viruses are very different from other organisms . They are not composed of cells and cannot be seen under a light microscope. Viruses donot exhibit most of the life processes of a cell . They undergo mutations. Mankind victimised by many diseases caused by viruses but no identifiable agent responsible for these diseases was known even after the proposition of the germ theroy of disease. W.M stanley purified the sap which caused tobacco mosaic virus and announced that virus could be crystallized. It ia very difficult to identify and catch viruses in body fluids. As they mutate it is not possible to produce suitable antibiotic to it. So treatment of AIDS with anti-retroviral drugs can prolong the life of the patient but cannot prevent death. A widely used diagnostic test for detecting HIV infection is the Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) test. This can be detected within 15 days to 4 months after the exposur to virus. This ia only a screening test. Western blot is used as a reliable confirmation test for HIV infection------What is an emulsifier?Carbon is a unique element in the way that it bonds to other elements. It likes to form 4 bonds, and the way that hydrogen atoms bond to it create an almost non-polar bond, that is the charge is almost neutral across the molecule. Most other molecules are polar, that means that there is a slight positive charge on one part of the molecule and a slight negative charge on the other. The carbons bonded with other carbons in a chain with hydrogen atoms on either side form the backbones that all know life is based on. That's why the compressed undecomposed plant matter crushed under the weight of the earth is an oily goo (or gas, these are the shorter chains, and the longest chains are waxy solids). Polar and non polar molecules can both be liquid, but will not mix together. Emulsifiers suspend small globules in tiny pockets so that the mixture appears fluid and consistent. The globules can be seen under a light microscope as they are not truly dissolved, but suspended. This is called a colloid------What happens during prophase 1 of meiosis?During this phase of meiosis, chromosomes become visible, crossing-over occurs, the nucleolus disappears, the meiotic spindle forms, and the nuclear envelope disappears.At the start of prophase I, the chromosomes have already duplicated. During prophase I, they coil and become shorter and thicker and visible under the light microscope. The duplicated homologous chromosomes pair, and crossing-over (the physical exchange of chromosome parts) occurs. Crossing-over is the process that can give rise to genetic recombination. At this point, each homologous chromosome pair is visible as a bivalent (tetrad), a tight grouping of two chromosomes, each consisting of two sister chromatids. The sites of crossing-over are seen as crisscrossed nonsister chromatids and are called chiasmata (singular: chiasma).The nucleolus disappears during prophase I.In the cytoplasm, the meiotic spindle, consisting of microtubules and other proteins, forms between the two pairs of centrioles as they migrate to opposite poles of the cell. The nuclear envelope disappears at the end of prophase I, allowing the spindle to enter the nucleus.Prophase I is the longest phase of meiosis, typically consuming 90% of the time for the two divisions------What word rhymes with rope?I would recommend RhymeZone rhyming dictionary and thesaurus:Words and phrases that rhyme with rope: (136 results)1 syllable:n-scope, -trope, chope, clope, cope, crope, dope, groep, grope, gsoep,hope, knope, koep, koepp, koeppe, kope, lope, mope, myope, nohup,nope, pope, prope, s.o.p, schoepe, schoepf, schoepp, scope, scrope,shope, slope, snoep, soap, sope, stoep, stope, stowp, strope, se,tope, trope2 syllables:nagrope, arrope, bar soap, bath soap, delope, dispope, elope, face soap,galope, glide slope, green soap, kalliope, malope, merope, o-scope,outlope, softsoap, soft soap, sterope, tightrope, trollope, unpope,unrope, worldscope3 syllables:nallotrope, antelope, antroscope, auriscope, bronchoscope, cantaloupe,endoscope, envelope, epitope, forlorn hope, gastroscope, gyroscope,horoscope, interscope, invert soap, isentrope, isotope, leather soap,liquid soap, marketscope, microscope, misanthrope, otoscope,partenope, periscope, proctoscope, pseudoscope, reotrope, rising slope,saddle soap, shaving soap, stethoscope, teinoscope, telescope,toilet soap4 syllables:nanisotrope, azeotrope, cape of good hope, goat antelope, heliotrope,kaleidoscope, laryngoscope, light microscope, onomatope,ophthalmoscope, oscilloscope, pay envelope, polariscope,schmidt telescope5 syllables:naerobioscope, compound microscope, continental slope,floral envelope, harnessed antelope, pronghorn antelope,sable antelope, simple microscope, solar telescope, telestereoscope,window envelope6 syllables:nelectron microscope, garden heliotrope, optical telescope,radio telescope, reflecting telescope, winter heliotrope7 syllables:namerican antelope, galilean telescope, gregorian telescope,newtonian telescope8 syllables:nastronomical telescopeWhat word rhymes with rope?------What are the major material analysis methods in full that are used extensively in the industry?In metallography and failure analysis, there are several analysis tools methods that are used, depending on what information you are trying to obtain.Optical Microscopy is used in failure analysis, fractography, and metallogrpahy. There are two microscopes that I use routinely: A low-power stereomicroscope, and an inverted light microscope. Scanning Electron Microscopy is also the bread and butter of materials analysis for metals. I use it for fractography, failure analysis, metallography. With the right detectors and software, I can also do chemical analysis by using energy dispersive x-ray spectrsocpy (EDS) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) to determine what elements are present, and what the atomic structure is. X-Ray diffraction is used to determine atomic structure of materials, and also to determine what the residual stress state is.Mechanical testing also provides a set of analysis tools, from tensile tests, to hardness tests, to Charpy impact tests. Fracture toughness tests, fatigue tests and fatigue crack growth are also analysis methods, as are creep tests. What are the major material analysis methods in full that are used extensively in the industry?------Is it possible to form bainite in plain carbon steel by CCT?A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) phase diagram is used to represent the phase changes of a material as it is cooled at different rates. (An illustration of a cct diagram is shown above.)Bainite is a plate-like microstructure that forms in steels at temperatures of 250u2013550 u00b0C (depending on alloy content). It consists of cementite and dislocation-rich ferrite. The high concentration of dislocations in the ferrite present in bainite makes this ferrite harder than it normally would be. Under a light microscope, the microstructure of bainite appears darker than martensite due to its low reflectivity. The steel sample below was etched in 4% picral solution first and revealed the presence of pearlite and carbides distinctly. Further tint etching in SMB resulted in the straw coloured martensite to appear as a band. Retained austenite is appearing as very fine white particles. The bainite is appearing as bluish-black background between the martensite constituents. Coarse dark grains are pearlite. Microhardness measurements and SEM studies further proved the constituents identity.Is it possible to form bainite in plain carbon steel by CCT?.------What is the difference between cell wall and cell membrane?Cell wall is metabolically inactive and non living. Cell membrane is metabolically active and living.Cell wall is the outermost layer in plant cell and occurs as a protective covering surrounding the plasma membrane. Cell memrane is the outermost layer in animal cell and occurs as a semi permeable covering surrounding the protoplasm.Cell wall is made up of cellulose in plant and of peptidoglycan in bacterium and made up of chitin in fungi.Plasma membrane is made up of lipids proteins and small amount of carbohydrates. Cell wall is a rigid, thick structure (4-20 uM) and visible in light microscope. Cell membrane is delicate, thin structure (5-10 nm wide) visible only in electron microscope.Cell wall is completely permeable to ordinary macromolecules . Cell membrane is selectively permeable or semi- permeable allowing only certain molecules to pass through.Cell wall determines the cell shape and offers protection. Cell membrane protect the protoplasm and maintains a constant internal environment to the protoplasm. Cell wall is present only in plant cell. Cell membrane is present in plant cells as well as in animal cell------What is the difference between primary cartilage and secondary cartilage?Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue that differs from bone in several ways. For one, the primary cell types are chondrocytes as opposed to osteocytes. Chondrocytes are first chondroblast cells that produce the collagen extracellular matrix (ECM) and then get caught in the specialized, fibrous connective tissue present in adults, and forming most of the temporary skeleton in the embryo, providing a model in which most of the bones develop, and constituting an important part of the organism's growth mechanism; the three most important types are hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage clavicle arises by intramembranous ossification, but it develops secondary cartilages as growth centers.Fibrous cartilage has bundles of collagenous fibers that can be easily observed under a light microscope. Cartilage is covered with a membrane of connective tissue, perichondrium, which contains cells capable of changing into chondrocytes. Cartilage grows mainly by such transformation and by the division of cartilage cells (intercalary growth)The secondary cartilages of the clavicle present important morphologic differences with the primary cartilages of long bones, but similar to that observed in the condylar cartilage of the mandible.
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What Is the Difference Between Cell Wall and Cell Membrane?
What Is the Difference Between Cell Wall and Cell Membrane?
Cell wall is metabolically inactive and non living. Cell membrane is metabolically active and living.Cell wall is the outermost layer in plant cell and occurs as a protective covering surrounding the plasma membrane. Cell memrane is the outermost layer in animal cell and occurs as a semi permeable covering surrounding the protoplasm.Cell wall is made up of cellulose in plant and of peptidoglycan in bacterium and made up of chitin in fungi.Plasma membrane is made up of lipids proteins and small amount of carbohydrates. Cell wall is a rigid, thick structure (4-20 uM) and visible in light microscope. Cell membrane is delicate, thin structure (5-10 nm wide) visible only in electron microscope.Cell wall is completely permeable to ordinary macromolecules . Cell membrane is selectively permeable or semi- permeable allowing only certain molecules to pass through.Cell wall determines the cell shape and offers protection. Cell membrane protect the protoplasm and maintains a constant internal environment to the protoplasm. Cell wall is present only in plant cell. Cell membrane is present in plant cells as well as in animal cell• Related QuestionsWhat are the major costs of setting up an animal biotechnology laboratory with genetic research and stem cell research as major areas of concentration?It will need some focused idea for what genetic and stem cell research laboratory you are talking about.Anyways, for some basic genetic diagnosis and research you will need very basic type of PCR, in complex research you would eventually need Real Time as well as sequencers.It will need animal cell lines. For maintaining and screening itu2019s viability one needs some deep freezers, Centrifuges, Phase contrast microscopes, light microscopes, Incubators, pipettes, Gel electrophoresis units, basic chemicals to make buffers, media for culture, Laminar airflow benches, basic glass as well as plastic apparatus, gel documentation system, Spectrophotometer etc. These are all very basic instruments you will need and upon it, some highly skilled and trained staff, roomy location, some good financer/sponsor as it will cost in lakhs to crores.All in all it will be very tough to construct research laboratory from scratch even if you have grants and sponsorship without skill. (Remember it will cost much less if you only want to get involved in diagnosis). What are the major costs of setting up an animal biotechnology laboratory with genetic research and stem cell research as major areas of concentration?------How much does variation exist between the connectomes of Nematode individuals from the same species?I was going to pass on this because Iu2019m not an expert on Nematodes, let alone on Nematode neurology (in fact, Nematodes both disgust and bore me, save for their possible epidemiological role), but let me hazard at least some provisional answer while you look for a better expert on the topic.Burr and Robinson claimed to appreciate considerable variation in not only Nematode locomotion but also Nematode behavior, the physical basis for which differences they claimed were observable even under a basic, light microscope. That might suggest that there are significant variations in Nematode connectomes, however, I donu2019t believe they were discussing it in terms of intraspecific - as opposed to interspecific - variations. Indeed, I would seriously doubt, in view of the relative simplicity of the Nematodeu2019s neural networks, that there is even much room for intraspecific variability and any physical difference in neural patterns sufficient to manifest itself both physiologically and ethologically, if it was not the product of specific differences, would likely result in rapid speciation.How much does variation exist between the connectomes of Nematode individuals from the same species?------What happens during prophase 1 of meiosis?During this phase of meiosis, chromosomes become visible, crossing-over occurs, the nucleolus disappears, the meiotic spindle forms, and the nuclear envelope disappears.At the start of prophase I, the chromosomes have already duplicated. During prophase I, they coil and become shorter and thicker and visible under the light microscope. The duplicated homologous chromosomes pair, and crossing-over (the physical exchange of chromosome parts) occurs. Crossing-over is the process that can give rise to genetic recombination. At this point, each homologous chromosome pair is visible as a bivalent (tetrad), a tight grouping of two chromosomes, each consisting of two sister chromatids. The sites of crossing-over are seen as crisscrossed nonsister chromatids and are called chiasmata (singular: chiasma).The nucleolus disappears during prophase I.In the cytoplasm, the meiotic spindle, consisting of microtubules and other proteins, forms between the two pairs of centrioles as they migrate to opposite poles of the cell. The nuclear envelope disappears at the end of prophase I, allowing the spindle to enter the nucleus.Prophase I is the longest phase of meiosis, typically consuming 90% of the time for the two divisions------What is the difference between bacteriology and virology?Bacteriology is to bacteria what virology is to viruses. While bacteriology focuses on the study of bacteria, virology study's viruses. The main differences are listed below.Bacteriology is boring while virology is very very very interesting. The nomenclature of bacteria (bacteriology)is rigid and over structured. This isn't the case with viruses (virology). I.e. the bacteria that causes uti is Escherichia coli (complex) the viruses that cause yellow fever are yellow fever viruses (simple). In bacteriology, bacteria can be studied with the light microscope. In virology the only thing the light microscope can visualize is the effects of the viruses such as the cytopathic effect and inclusion bodies. To visualize viruses accurately and individually you need an electronic microscope. While bacteriology entails the study of organisms mostly capable of survival on artificial media such as agar, this is not the case with virology. In fact viruses are obligate parasites and can only grow in a host or cell culture.Bacteriology involves the study of living organisms. Virology involves study of viruses which don't meet the threshold of neither being alive nor dead.ThanksWhat is the difference between bacteriology and virology?------Online repositories of scanning electron microscope photographs?First off I'd like to reccomend the University of Dartmouth's publicly available collection located here. They have both SEM and TEM images of a wide range of organisms and cells from algae to see urchins through everything from cholera to mammalian cells. Images are high quality, fully captioned and properly attributed.I'm a little confused as to the problem you're having with google - see my original comment on your question. However I have looked at the photos of Wikimedia Commons in the SEM category and see that they are either images taken with, images of SEM Microscopes or technical drawings regarding their function. I assume that you're looking for the images taken with SEM.I was able to find a great number of similar images to those in the commons with a Google Image search - I read above that you were having problems with this approach so perhaps try the search term "SEM images" in image search (or this search to avoid duplications from images you have already seen on Wiki Commons)?Examples found on just the first page:------What is the difference between primary cartilage and secondary cartilage?Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue that differs from bone in several ways. For one, the primary cell types are chondrocytes as opposed to osteocytes. Chondrocytes are first chondroblast cells that produce the collagen extracellular matrix (ECM) and then get caught in the specialized, fibrous connective tissue present in adults, and forming most of the temporary skeleton in the embryo, providing a model in which most of the bones develop, and constituting an important part of the organism's growth mechanism; the three most important types are hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage clavicle arises by intramembranous ossification, but it develops secondary cartilages as growth centers.Fibrous cartilage has bundles of collagenous fibers that can be easily observed under a light microscope. Cartilage is covered with a membrane of connective tissue, perichondrium, which contains cells capable of changing into chondrocytes. Cartilage grows mainly by such transformation and by the division of cartilage cells (intercalary growth)The secondary cartilages of the clavicle present important morphologic differences with the primary cartilages of long bones, but similar to that observed in the condylar cartilage of the mandible.------Why can't a person catch HIV from body fluids or saliva?HIV is a virus and viruses are very different from other organisms . They are not composed of cells and cannot be seen under a light microscope. Viruses donot exhibit most of the life processes of a cell . They undergo mutations. Mankind victimised by many diseases caused by viruses but no identifiable agent responsible for these diseases was known even after the proposition of the germ theroy of disease. W.M stanley purified the sap which caused tobacco mosaic virus and announced that virus could be crystallized. It ia very difficult to identify and catch viruses in body fluids. As they mutate it is not possible to produce suitable antibiotic to it. So treatment of AIDS with anti-retroviral drugs can prolong the life of the patient but cannot prevent death. A widely used diagnostic test for detecting HIV infection is the Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) test. This can be detected within 15 days to 4 months after the exposur to virus. This ia only a screening test. Western blot is used as a reliable confirmation test for HIV infection------Which microscope can view DNA?My dear friend it is the Electron Microscope. An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination. As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible light photons, electron microscopes have a higher resolving power than light microscopes and can reveal the structure of smaller objects. A scanning transmission electron microscope has achieved better than 50pm resolution in annular dark field imaging mode and magnifications of up to about 10,000,000x whereas most light microscopes are limited by diffraction to about 200 nm resolution and useful magnifications below 2000x.Electron microscopes have electron optical lens systems that are analogous to the glass lenses of an optical light microscope.Electron microscopes are used to investigate the ultrastructure of a wide range of biological and inorganic specimens including microorganisms, cells, large molecules, biopsy samples, metals, and crystals. Industrially, electron microscopes are often used for quality control and failure analysis. Modern electron microscopes produce electron micrographs using specialized digital cameras and frame grabbers to capture the image. Hope it helped you------What is an emulsifier?Carbon is a unique element in the way that it bonds to other elements. It likes to form 4 bonds, and the way that hydrogen atoms bond to it create an almost non-polar bond, that is the charge is almost neutral across the molecule. Most other molecules are polar, that means that there is a slight positive charge on one part of the molecule and a slight negative charge on the other. The carbons bonded with other carbons in a chain with hydrogen atoms on either side form the backbones that all know life is based on. That's why the compressed undecomposed plant matter crushed under the weight of the earth is an oily goo (or gas, these are the shorter chains, and the longest chains are waxy solids). Polar and non polar molecules can both be liquid, but will not mix together. Emulsifiers suspend small globules in tiny pockets so that the mixture appears fluid and consistent. The globules can be seen under a light microscope as they are not truly dissolved, but suspended. This is called a colloid
2021 06 25
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What Is a Capsule in a Prokaryotic Cell?
What Is a Capsule in a Prokaryotic Cell?
Capsule is 0.2m thick viscus layer firmly attached to the cell wall of some capsulated bacteria.If capsule is too thick it is known as slime.Slime layer are loosely attached to cell wall and can be lost on vigorous washing and on sub culture. Composition of capsule: 98% water and 2% polysaccharide or glycoprotein/ polypeptide or both.In case of Acetic acid bacteria, capsule is composed of homopolysaccharide (hemicellulose)leuconostoc: capsule is composed of cellulose, consisting of glucose or fructose.Klebsiella pneumoniae: capsule is made up of glucose, galactose,rhamnose etc. In Bacillus anthracis: capsule is made up of Polypeptide (Polymer of D-glutamic acid) and in Streptococci, it is L-aminoacids.Capsule is very delicate structure. It can be removed by vigorous washing.Capsule is most important virulence factor of bacteria.Capsule in visualized by Negative staining technique. There are two types of capsule. Macro-capsule: thickness of 0. 2m or more, visible under light microscopeMicrocapsule: thickness less than 0.2m, visible under Electron microscopeFunction of capsule:Prevent the cell from desiccation and drying: capsular polysaccharide bind significant amount of water making cell resistant to dryingProtection: it protect from mechanical injury, temperature, drying etcAttachment: capsule helps in attachment on the surface. Eg. Streptococcus mutants that cause dental carries attach on teeth surface by its capsule. Anti-phagocytic : Capsule resist phagocytosis by WBCsCapsule prevent attachment of bacteriophage on cell surfaceSource of nutrition: capsule is source of nutrition when nutrient supply is low in cell.Repulsion: same charge capsulated bacteria repel each other.Examples of Capsulated bacteria:Bacillus subtilisBacillus anthracis ( contains polypeptide capsule)Streptococcus pneumoniaeKlebsiella pneumoniaeHaemplhilus influenzaClostridium perfingensNeisseria meningitidisPseudmonas aeruginosaAcenetobacter calcoaceticus.• Related QuestionsDo you think that the pixel shift technology of cameras such as the Sony A7Riv can get around the limitations of lens resolution?No, it most definitely cannot. The lens isn't moving during the creation of a pixel shift image. The sensor is moving, allowing the camera to sample the image formed by the lens at a higher resolution than the native pitch of the sensor. Any artifacts produced by the lens in the image circle will become visible. If you want a higher resolution from the lens than the lens can resolve on its own you need to use a technique like STORM or 4Pi, where either an algorithm calculates the likely details of what was there using some quantum weirdness or you actually interpolate what was there based on multiple images. It's kind of like interferometery except using a visible light microscope.Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) ImagingZEISS Microscopy Online CampusYou could in principle do these things with most cameras. (Ok, STORM requires a flourescent sample and an excitation lightu2026 so you cannot.) You could most likely use some of these principles with a conventional camera, camera movement, and fancy software. Shifting the sensor cannot get you there however. The good news is that most glass produces an image capable of resolving significantly finer details than most sensors pick up for most images. Be my guest if you want to shoot photos of a ruler gradated in micrometers I suppose. (But then you're probably playing with real lenses and they probably have names like u201cAchroplan 50x /0,90 Oilu201d etc. )Do you think that the pixel shift technology of cameras such as the Sony A7Riv can get around the limitations of lens resolution?------What are the differences in the process between mitosis and meiosis?The two nuclear divisions take place in different cell types. The mitotic division takes place in somatic cells after the chromosomes have been replicated. Replicated chromosomes are joined together at the centromere, and are referred to as chromatids in a dyad (the name for this structure). It is this structure that is visible when chromosomes are viewed under the light microscope. The centromere splits so that each chromatid can migrate to each pole. In a diploid organism this means that 2 copies of each unique chromosome migrate to the poles so that each daughter cell receives the same genetic complement. In contrast, meiosis takes place in germ line cells and it is involved in gamete formation. Meiosis consists of two nuclear divisions, so that the products are 4 daughter cells. The chromosomes are replicated before the first nuclear division, which is a specialised division. During prophase of the first division, all homologous dyads pair to form a structure known as a tetrad - or bivalent if the cell is diploid. It is within this structure that chromatids exchange sections as a result of recombination. Each tetrad comprises of 4 chromatids, each one attached to its replicated counterpart. When these tetrads split, a dyad migrates to each pole so that the daughter cell contains 2 chromatids of each unique chromosome.The second meiotic division proceedes without chromosome replication. This means that each daughter cell receives a single copy of each unique chromosome. The chromosome number is halved as a result.So mitosis proceeds to maintain genetic stability while meiosis proceeds to half the genetic complement of a cell------How do compound and dissecting microscopes differ?There are numerous differences between a compound optical light microscope & a dissecting microscope (far too many to list here). Generally, the dissecting (or stereo) microscope does not have a nosepiece for switching objective lenses (some dissecting microscopes use a Barlow lens), but a number of stereo microscopes have a zoom magnification changer to allow the user to vary the magnification over a large range (even up to 1:20, etc).Dissecting microscopes are also low power microscopes (most can't exceed a total magnification of 200X) while compound optical light microscopes can reach up to 2,000X without much issues. With higher power comes the consequence of special imaging techniques (e.g. oil immersion, etc) which the compound optical light microscope allows, but which the stereo microscope does not have (the latter being low power microscopes with a greater depth of field). Stereo microscopes also allow direct observation of samples without much preparation via epi-illumination due to their large working distance (a primary advantage over compound optical light microscopes) which allows for easy micromanipulation, etc. Nonetheless, some compound optical light microscopes also provide direct epi-illumination based techniques, although their working distance is generally lesser than that of the dissecting microscope. The compound optical light microscope is also capable of certain specialized techniques which stereo microscopes don't provide (e.g. phase contrast, DIC, HMC, etc). Darkfield, fluorescence & polarization microscopy, as well as the retrofitting of a mechanical/scanning stage/gliding table & digital cameras may be accessible via both microscope types, with the appropriate attachments fitted. How do compound and dissecting microscopes differ?------Why can't we determine the momentum of a particle in the Heisenberg uncertainty principle when the location is determined?One way way to think about this is that a particle in motion has a characteristic wave associated with it whose wavelength (distance between successive peaks) is given by the de Broglie formula ph/lambda, where p is the particle momentum, h is Plancks constant, and lambda is the wavelength. Now the probability of finding a particle at a particular location is specified by the magnitude squared of the wavefunction associated with this wave (Born Rule), and if a particle is highly localized, then the wavefunction must also be highly localized (otherwise, you would have a significant probability of finding the particle elsewhere). You can think of the wavefunction as being a superposition of waves with different wavelengths, and for the particle to be highly localized, the principal component waves must have wavelengths that are comparable to or shorter than the localization region. (Think of the fact that with a light microscope, the smallest things that are visible are those whose dimensions are comparable to the shortest wavelength of light we can see). So if the wavefunction is comprised of waves with very short wavelengths, then from the de Broglie formula above, the particles momentum must be very large. Thus, localizing a particle to a very small region necessarily requires that it have a large momentum. To sum it up, if a particle is confined to a very small region, then the wavelength of the wave associated with the particle must also be very small and this implies that the particle must have a large momentum------Why are a lot of people with degrees scared to work jobs that require working with their hands?Most people make a living working with their hands. Computer programmers spend hours on a keyboard. I have a degree in engineering and I work with my hands experimenting with miniaturized semiconductor devices, some of them are so small that you cannot see them well with your naked eyes and need a microscope. Some of the features in these devices are so small that you cannot see them with a traditional light microscope and need an electron microscope. My job needs a different kind of hands-on skills compared to other jobs or trades and I certainly enjoy what I do.I have tried my hand at several DIY tasks of varying complexity with mixed results. Once I changed out my garbage disposal and did not know that I had to remove the cap to allow water from the dishwasher to drain. Everything was great until the next morning when my wife noticed that the dishwasher was no longer working. I eventually googled and figured out the issue and fixed it. The inconvenience I caused is the price I paid for not hiring a professional. One of the reasons I will think twice before doing a DIY task is because I fully understand that things that seem simple can sometimes be extremely difficult without proper skills, application, training, tools and motivation. Being a successful craftsman (working with your hands in the traditional sense) is exceptionally difficult and not is not meant for everybody. Having a college degree just makes it easier to explore other career opportunities that are aligned with your flair, values and goals------How can I use a microscope and experimentation to learn more about biology?"Biology" is a very broad topic so my first suggestion would be to narrow it down and find what you're interested in. Depending on what you want to do, there are many guides in how to build your own light microscope with simple magnification. But you have to ask the right questions to know what tools to use. For example, if you are interested in the ecology of butterflies, you don't need a microscope...just time and knowledge to collect samples and observe their differences and relate that to environment, species, etc.If you want to get into mammalian cell biology, there are ways to harvest your own cheek epithelial cells and put them on a glass slide. If you have access to a cell culture incubator you can even grow your own cells.You mention taking a synthetic biology course. I would say that synthetic biology is a pretty advanced topic insofar that you have to know the biological background of the system you're studying (e. g. E. Coli bacteria) plus how to do genetic manipulations and have all the equipment necessary to perform those experiments (e.g. PCR, performing electrophoresis, restriction enzymes). If you want to just get more exposure to a lab setting, I would suggest contacting your closest university that has a biology department that does research. Let them know you just want some experience and exposure to science. Generally these are going to be unpaid internships but it would still be good experience.How can I use a microscope and experimentation to learn more about biology?.
2021 06 25
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Discovery of a Female Cat with Testicles Among Weirdest Pet Claims
Discovery of a Female Cat with Testicles Among Weirdest Pet Claims
A North Shore pet owner got the shock of her life to learn her female cat also had testicles. Along with the discovery of a hermaphrodite cat, other owners have been left perplexed after discovering their pets had consumed anything from a roll of dental floss, compact mirror, blanket, sewing needle to a chicken skewer. These discoveries were among the weirdest PetCare claims received by Southern Cross last year. Lisa Newlands adopted her domestic long haired cat Cameo in 2014 with the reassurance she had been spayed. But at the end of last year, Newlands became suspicious about whether it the standard neutering had worked when her usually feisty cat started befriending a stray male. After Cameo became really sick with a high temperature and stopped eating for the second time in two months, an ultrasound revealed she had a large mass in her stomach area. The ginger cat underwent surgery and for the first time in her vet's 13 year career, she discovered two cancerous testicles in the female feline. Cancerous testicles emit oestrogen, which was why the tom cat was hanging around. "The vet was just bamboozled. She had never seen anything like this in her entire career," Newlands said. Cameo's total vet bill was $2531, but Newlands said fortunately $2013 was covered by pet insurance. Newlands estimated Cameo had racked up almost $10,000 in vet bills since she had owned her because she was notorious for getting in fights with other cats and was grateful most of it had been covered by her pet insurance. Another pet owner also claimed on a hefty $8000 vet bill after their german shepherd cut its leg on a metal shoe rack as it tried to escape from two cats. The traumatic incident resulted in the dog having to undergo two surgeries and receive post operative care. In another case, a labrador retriever went under the knife to remove pieces of a blanket it had eaten from its stomach at a cost of $6000. Another owner commented that they were amazed that the chicken skewer eaten by their miniature poodle came out whole after being endoscopically removed. And a hungry beagle's desire to snaffle up a tasty fruit cake also backfired on it after the raisins caused it to have renal failure. The wee beagle had it's kidneys flushed at the vet. But the list of weird claims gets crazier after a french bulldog ate a whole roll dental floss it had found in a visitor's bag and a Shetland sheepdog had to be treated for munching on dish cloths on two separate occasions. The mischievous mutt managed to escape surgery and was given drugs to help it either poo or vomit the rags out. And it wasn't just playful pooches causing their owners angst, a domestic long haired cat also required surgery to remove a sewing needle it had swallowed and devon rex cat had 46 hair ties surgically removed from its stomach. Both treatments cost their owners more than $2000 each. Southern Cross Pet Insurance general manager Anthony McPhail said everyday, unexpected accidents could end up costing pet owners a lot of money at the veterinary clinic. McPhail said while most of the claims processed were for typical illnesses and routine checks, the ones where pets had managed to eat something they shouldn't have still surprised them. He said the stories could be amusing, but still caused quite a lot of stress to the pet and both its owner and their wallet. "We recommend owners prepare for those unexpected veterinary visits by either setting some money aside or considering pet insurance," McPhail said.
2021 07 27
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Citing Privacy Concerns, U.S. Panel Urges End to Secret DNA Testing
Citing Privacy Concerns, U.S. Panel Urges End to Secret DNA Testing
NEW YORK (Reuters) - They're called discreet DNA samples, and the Elk Grove, California, genetic-testing company easyDNA says it can handle many kinds, from toothpicks to tampons. Blood stains from bandages and tampons? Ship them in a paper envelope for paternity, ancestry or health testing. EasyDNA also welcomes cigarette butts (two to four), dental floss ("do not touch the floss with your fingers"), razor clippings, gum, toothpicks, licked stamps and used tissues if the more standard cheek swab or tube of saliva isn't obtainable. If the availability of such services seems like an invitation to mischief or worse - imagine a discarded tissue from a prospective employee being tested to determine whether she's at risk for an expensive disease, for instance - the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues agrees. On Thursday it released a report on privacy concerns triggered by the advent of whole genome sequencing, determining someone's complete DNA make-up. Although sequencing "holds enormous promise for human health and medicine," commission chairwoman Amy Gutmann told reporters on Wednesday, there is a "potential for misuse of this very personal data." "In many states someone can pick up your discarded coffee cup and send it for (DNA) testing," said Gutmann, who is the president of the University of Pennsylvania. "It's not a fantasy to think about how, without baseline privacy protection, people could use this in a way that would be really detrimental," such as by denying someone with a gene that raises their risk of Alzheimer's disease long-term care insurance, or to jack up life insurance premiums for someone with an elevated genetic risk of a deadly cancer that strikes people in middle age. "Those who are willing to share some of the most intimate information about themselves for the sake of medical progress should be assured appropriate confidentiality, for example, about any discovered genetic variations that link to increased likelihood of certain diseases, such as Alzheimer's, diabetes, heart disease and schizophrenia," Gutmann said. The commission took on the issue because whole genome sequencing is poised to become part of mainstream medical care, especially by personalizing medical treatments based on a patient's DNA. That has been driven in large part by dramatic cost reductions, from $2.5 billion per genome in the Human Genome Project of the 1990s and early 2000s to $1,000 soon. Several companies, including Illumina Inc. and Life Technology's Ion Torrent division, sell machines that can sequence a genome for a few hundred dollars, but that does not include the analysis to figure out what the string of 3 billion DNA "letters" means. A three-year-old federal law prohibits discrimination in employment or health insurance based on someone's genetic information but does not address other potential misuses of the data. Without such privacy protection, said Gutmann, people may be reluctant to participate in genetic studies that do whole genome sequencing, for fear their genetic data will not be secure and could be used against them. Recommendations from such panels are not binding but have been used as the basis for policy and legislation. One scenario the panel offers is a "contentious spouse" secretly having a DNA sample sequenced and using it in a custody battle "as evidence of unfitness to parent," perhaps because the DNA showed a genetic risk for mental illness or alcoholism. There are no federal laws against that. Or, the panel said, DNA information might be posted in a social networking site "by a malicious stranger or acquaintance," possibly hurting someone's "chance of finding a spouse, achieving standing in a community, or pursuing a desired career path." The bioethics panel recommends a dozen forms of privacy protection, including that "surreptitious commercial testing" be banned: No gene sequencing or other genetic testing should be permitted without consent from the person the DNA came from, it said. About 25 states currently allow such DNA testing. Critics of the lack of genetic privacy thought greater urgency was needed. "The report lays out a lot of important best practices and does endorse further state and federal regulations, but it doesn't offer a timeline," said Jeremy Gruber, president of the Council for Responsible Genetics, a private group that monitors genetic issues. "What will inevitably happen is whole genome sequencing will enter greater use and we won't have proper regulations to insure privacy." A bill introduced in California, home to many DNA testing companies, by state Senator Alex Padilla would ban surreptitious testing, requiring written authorization from the person the genetic sample was taken from. It is not clear how many labs are willing to analyze DNA without that authorization. In practice, well-known genetic testing companies such as privately held 23andMe test only saliva samples that are too large to acquire surreptitiously, such as from a drinking glass or licked stamp. "A person would really know that they are spitting into a tube," said 23andMe spokeswoman Jane Rubinstein. The full report from the presidential commission is at www.bioethics.gov.
2021 07 28
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How to Cut Corn Off the Cob Easily, Quickly, & Safely
How to Cut Corn Off the Cob Easily, Quickly, & Safely
We've all been there: we're enjoying a nice cob of corn, happily covering our face in butter and salt, when suddenly we realize that there's a thread of corn silk stuck in our teeth. We try to dislodge it with our tongue; no luck. We pick around with our fingers; still no luck. That silk is staying there until you return home to your toothbrush and dental floss. And if you think that corn silk is bad for most people, try having braces!Cutting the kernels off corn on the cob not only helps this problem, but also makes corn a lot easier to cook with.There is a problem, of course. I'd like to think I have above-average knife skills, and yet I'm completely scared to try and cut kernels off corn on the cob. There's no way to balance the oblong cob, and you have to cut straight down. To add insult to injury, the kernels corn go flying everywhere; it's nearly impossible to cut them in a neat and orderly manner. But worry not: there are some surprisingly easy (and safe!) ways to quickly and neatly cut corn off the cob.Use a Bundt or Angel Food Cake PanI only recently found out about this (big thanks to Saveur's amazing video channel), but it's now one of my favorite food hacks. Place one end of the cob in the middle of the pan, which will keep the corn stable while you cut down. Then, as you cut the ears off of the cob, they'll collect in the pan instead of scattering everywhere.Construct a Makeshift Bundt Cake PanIf you don't have a bundt or angel food cake pan, you can make your own version. Start with a cake pan, pie dish, or shallow bowl. Then add any stable item that can hold one end of the corn, such as a narrow cup or a shot glass. (My personal favorite is a toilet paper cardboard tube, but please be careful if you try this: these tubes are remarkably flimsy, so if you apply too much pressure they will collapse while you're cutting.) Then proceed just as you would with a bundt or angel food cake pan, until you have a bowl of perfectly cut corn.Cut the Corn in HalfThis is the quickest way to get the kernels off of the cob, but you want to avoid it unless you have a nice knife and are comfortable using it. Start by cutting the corn in half, which is harder than it looks: the core of the cob is extremely hard, and the corn will want to roll while you're trying to cut. So above all, be careful!Now that the corn is in half, each piece has a flat side, making it easier and safer to balance the cob while you cut it. And with each piece half the size of a full cob of corn, there's less mess when you cut the ears off.Then again, if you're hell-bent on keeping the corn on the cob, but still want to get rid of the strings of silk, you can always microwave it.Get More Food-Cutting HacksSometimes unflavored dental floss is better at cutting certain foods than your knife-seriously! And if cutting tomatoes befuddles you, be sure to read our indispensable guide on how to do it right. As for mangoes, turns out you need to bring a drinking glass in order to cut them the right way.
2021 07 28
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How to Make Jewelry From Seeds
How to Make Jewelry From Seeds
Using natural objects to decorate the human body has been practiced for thousands of years. In this day and age, going green with your jewelry can be fashionable in more ways than one. Grow and dry your own seeds, or find them at grocery stores, garden centers or in your backyard. Making jewelry can help satisfy your creative nature, and if you create patterns and designs that appeal to other people, you could market your jewelry and add some green to your pocketbook by utilizing simple materials provided by Mother Nature.Dried seedsCotton cloth1-inch-thick boardDrill1/16-inch drill bitSmall pliersTape measureScissorsRed marker penNeedlePlain dental flossMasking tapePrepare your seeds by sorting through them to eliminate debris and remove broken or misshapen seeds. Wash any seeds that are dirty, and dry them thoroughly. Rub the seeds with a cotton cloth to make them shine.Place a 1-inch-thick board on your work area, and place a seed on the board. Hold the seed securely with pliers. Drill a hole in the seed with a cordless drill with a 1/16-inch drill bit. so this with all your necklace seeds. Drill holes in all your seeds.Measure 32 inches of dental floss with the tape measure, and cut the floss, using scissors. Use a red marker to mark a spot 2 inches from one end of the dental floss. Mark that spot with a red marker. Mark a spot 2 inches from the other end of the dental floss. Wrap a small piece of masking tape around that end.Thread the end of your dental floss through the tiny opening at the top of your self-threading needle, above the eye. Pull the floss through the eye of your needle until you reach the spot marked with masking tape.Thread one seed at a time onto the floss by pushing the needle through the hole you've drilled in the seed. Pull the first seed to the spot marked with the masking tape. Keep adding seeds until you've filled the length of floss between the red mark and masking tape.Remove the masking tape from the end of the floss, and knot the ends of floss together securely. Clip the loose ends of floss close to the knot with scissors to finish your necklace.Drill holes in the center of each seed or at a point that will allow the seed to be threaded so it will lie at the angle of your choosing. Thread all of one kind of seed onto your floss, or alternate seeds of different shapes and sizes. Store pieces of finished jewelry in tightly covered glass jars.Use caution when using a drill. Place seed jewelry in a deep freeze for a couple of weeks, at least once a year, to kill any insects that may infest the seeds. Never eat seeds that you use to make jewelry.
2021 07 28
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Find the Right and Trustworthy Medical Equipment Suppliers in India
Find the Right and Trustworthy Medical Equipment Suppliers in India
No doubt, healthcare services need a diverse range of products and equipment. In order to fulfill your needs, there are equipment suppliers available who can give you a wide range of medical products and types of equipment. Meanwhile, it is essential to consider specific essentials before you look down for a supplier of medical items.Quality Medical Equipment ImportantThe good medical laboratories in India need some collection of good quality medical equipment. Medical equipment suppliers in India offer types of equipment that technicians would use for the purpose of the analysis of electrolytes and blood gas, immunology, chemistry, microbiology, hematology, urinalysis, coagulation, additionally to a comprehensive collection of ancillary laboratory tools, reagents, and controls. If you wish to have some good quality of products for the medical laboratories, it's especially significant to select a trustworthy medical equipment supplier. The suppliers generally have an account with a wide collection of regular laboratory products.Choose a Reliable dealer or SupplierSelecting a reliable supplier or dealer medical equipment will make sure that the laboratories are completely equipped with a diverse inventory of top quality products from the top brands. Not to add to the fact that all the analytical process will out efficiently and correctly.Apart from that, the recognized suppliers usually give post-sales services and proficient refurbish and packages of the repair that will make sure that all the items supplied are functioning in the right way. They also give the spare parts and delicates for the majority of the products.Medical equipment online storeNot just physical stores, but the online store is also ready to serve your needs for the medical types of equipment. Look for trustworthy suppliers that can give you amazing in-house services which include repairs when required, after-sales assistance and visits for material service.Contact Details:-Website : No: 9247871397 / 0891-2521379EmailId : indianmedicalmart@gmail.comAdrress : Door No: 14-11-2, Ramajogipeta, Maharanipeta,Back Side of Bharathi Hospital, Visakhapatnam - 530002, Andhra Pradesh, India·RELATED QUESTIONWhat are the key performance indicators for a surgical instrument sales company?Would depend on the company selling, but most likely a company selling such equipment would need to track:Number of units soldRevenue generated per month or quarterMRR (monthly recurring revenues)Tracking follow-up dates for re-stocksProduct rotation tracking (if items have an expiry date)Quality assurance (both stock and transport)Invoicing & payment trackingAnd of course, all of the relevant data of their clients.Perhaps worth contacting a hospital administrator and see if they can help you directly. Or indeed, another medical equipment supply company.We have several medical equipment suppliers using our software and each have different metrics and KPI's.Hope this helps!
2021 07 28
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