CONCRETE 3D PRINTER Introduction , Working , Types , Applications , Advantages & Disadvantages

CONCRETE 3D PRINTINGThree dimensional printing (3DP) is a manufacturing process that builds layers to create a three- dimensional solid object from a digital model. It allows for mass customization and complex shapes that cannot be produced in other ways, eliminates the need for tool production and its associated labour, and reduces waste stream. Because of these advantages, 3DP has been increasingly used in different areas.

CONCRETE 3D PRINTER  Introduction , Working , Types , Applications , Advantages & Disadvantages 1

including medical, automotive, aerospace, construction, etc. 3D printing for civil structures can significantly reduce the construction time and cost.However, unlike applications of 3DP in other areas, civil structures are typically large scale, with length or height spanning hundreds of meters.

They are subjected to complex loadings, including gravity, wind, seismic, etc. Therefore, it is challenging to develop suitable printing tools and materials. As a result, 3DP of civil structures is still at a primitive stage.

1. Contour crafting 2. Concrete printing 3.

CON print 3DThis Three are Extrusion based techniquesThe extrusion-based technique is analogous to the fussed deposition modelling (FDM) method which extrudes cementitious material from a nozzle mounted on a gantry, crane or a 6-axes robotic arm to print a structure layer by layer.This technique has been aimed at on-site construction applications such as large-scale building components with complex geometries, and has a great potential to make a significant and positive contribution to the construction industry. A schematic of the extrusion based technique is illustrated in Figure1.

CONCRETE 3D PRINTER  Introduction , Working , Types , Applications , Advantages & Disadvantages 2

Contour crafting (CC) technology has been developed at the university of Southern California, USA. This technology uses the extrusion-based technique to extrude two layers of cementitious mixture to build a vertical concrete formwork. Custom-made reinforcement ties are manually inserted between layers (at every 30 cm horizontal and 13 cm vertically) while the CC machine is constantly extruding the layers.

Trowel-like Gins are attached to the print head to create smooth extruded surfaces. Once the extruded formwork is completed, concrete is then manually poured to a height of 13 cm and a second batch is poured on top of the first batch after one hour. A one hour delay batch is to control the lateral pressure of the concrete by allowing it to partially cure and harden.

The chief advantagesThe superior surface finish and the greatly enhanced of fabrication. Other key advantage of CC is possibility of integration with other robotics methods for installing internal components such as pipes, electrical conductors, and reinforcement modules to enhance mechanical property. The CC technology currently produces vertical elements largely in compression.

When doorway or window is required a lintel is placed to bridge the gap and the wall can be placed above. Therefore, it avoids the cantilever problem.Drawbacks for the CC technology :1.

This technology is limited to vertical extrusion, hence yielding 2. 5 D topologies (vertical extension of a planar shape),2. The initial formwork and trowel system can be rather complex to implement for production, depending on the size and shape of the object being printed.

3.The interrupted sequential casting of concrete within the formwork due to hydrostatic pressure and weak mechanical properties of the extruded concrete may result in weakened interfacial zones between the layers. 2.

Concrete PrintingConcrete Printing technology has been developed by a team at Loughborough University in the United Kingdom. This technology also uses the extrusion-based technique and to some extent is similar to the cc technology.However, the concrete Printing technology has been developed to retain 3D freedom and has, smaller resolution of deposition, which allows for greater control of internal and external geometries In addition, the material used in Concrete Printing is a high performance fiber-reinforced fine-aggregate concrete resulting in superior material properties to those obtained in the CC technology.

Concrete printing requires additional support to create overhangs and other freeform features. It use, second material, in a similar manner to the FDM method. The disadvantage of this process is that an additional deposition device is needed for the second material resulting in more maintenance, cleaning and control instructions and the secondary structure must be cleaned away in a post processing operation.

Drawbacks of Concrete Printing Technology(1) The trade-off necessary for maintaining its dimensional accuracy makes the process quite slow with regards to the envisioned industrial application,(2) Although the technology initially aimed at the veneration of 3D topologies rather than 2.5 D. the use of second material to support overhangs reduces the efficiency and flexibility of the process while increasing its material cost,(3) Dimensions and possibilities in terms of shape-design are limited by the dimensions of the printing frame3.

and Concrete Printing technologies, while demonstrating many technological advantages, are subjected inherent limitations such as the necessity of using new and advanced machinery, small mineral some aggregate sizes (fine-aggregate mortar rather than concrete), and limited size of the printed elements (i. e. the size of the 3D printer must be larger than the size of the element to be printed).

To overcome these limitations, a novel approach for 3DCP technology for on-site construction, named CONPrint 3D, is currently being developed at the TU Dresden, Germany, which intends to bring 3DCP directly into the building sites. The main advantages of CONPrint 3D technology are high geometrical flexibility, usage of commonly used construction machinery and low dependency skilled labour. READ MORE (Working,Advantages,Disadvantages,purposes)Originally published at

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